Perhaps the Lipans
were all that were left of these people by reservation days.
I Fought A Good Fight: History of the Lipan
Apaches is a thoroughly researched, scholarly examination of the Lipan
Apaches (one of multiple Apache groups) of the American Southwest, from the earliest archaeological evidence to the diaspora that spread surviving Lipans
amid a variety of other ethnic groups across a wide geographical range.
In 1844, under the direction of Major Neighbors, "the Republic of Texas signed a 'Treaty of Peace, Friendship, and Commerce' with the Commanches, Keechies, Wacoes, Caddoes, Anadarkoes, Ionies, Delawares, Shawnees, Cherokees, Lipans and Tawakonies" (Koch 1925b, 263).
In 1845, President Anson Jones appointed him as Indian agent for the Lipan and Tonkawa tribes.
Mescaleros claim that Lipan
Apaches formerly had Mountain Spirit dancers, though they had already been lost to Lipan
tradition when a small remnant of Lipans
joined the Mescalero tribe in the early 1900s.
After a brief stint in Texas, they crossed into Mexico in July 1850 and negotiated for land and provisions; the president of Mexico approved their land grant near Piedras Negras but exacted a price-military service, against the Lipans
and Comanches, among others.
I'm sending you across the Rio Grande after the Lipans, Kickapoos, and the Apaches.
I'm burning out everything in my path-everything Kickapoo, Lipan, and Apache, and anything else that the darkness fails to distinguish.
Unlike other Apaches to the West, the Lipans
had embodied a plains-oriented economy into their culture and lifestyle; in the early 1700s, they controlled the bison hide and meat trade.
Apart from general and indirect information, the documents listed mention the following specific peoples: Apaches, Bidais, Carrizos, Chafalotes, Cholones, Cimarrones, Comanches, Karankawas, Limas, Lipans
, Mayos, Mescaleros, Moquis, Natages, Navajos, Norterios, Opatas, Orcoquizas, Papagos, Pericus, Platos, Pimas, Pueblos, Salineros, Seris, Sibupapas, Sobaipuris, Sumas, Tarahumares, Texas, Tepocas, Tiburones, Tumanes, Yaquis, Yumas, and Yutas.