Reduction of ubiquinone by lipoamide
The complex consists of three enzymes: pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide
) alpha 1 (PDHA1), dihydrolipoamide S-acetyltransferase (DLAT), and dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLD).
Molecular characterization of lipoamide
dehydrogenase gene in Trypanosoma cruzi populations susceptible and resistant to benznidazole.
In that study 3 SNPs in creatine kinase, muscle (CKM), pyruvate dehydrogenase lipoamide
kinase isozyme 4 (PDK4) and cytochrome c oxidase, subunit 4, isoform 2 (COX4I2) genotype frequency distributions were significantly (P<0.05) different between elite and non-elite thoroughbred racehorses.
Trypanothione reductase is a member of FAD-dependent NADPH oxidoreductase protein family and shares close structural similarities with GR, lipoamide
dehydrogenase and eukaryotic TrxRs (5).
Other diseases of connection to Ashkenazi Jews are Familial Hyperinsulinism, Joubert Syndrome Type 2, Lipoamide
Dehydrogenase Deficiency (E3), Nemaline Myopathy, Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA), Usher Syndrome Type 3, Usher Syndrom Type I, and Walker Warburg Syndrome.
The sulfhydryl group (-SH) is contained in the reduced forms of glutathione, cysteine, coenzyme A, lipoamide
(lipoic acid) and in mercaptans (R-SH).
Regeneration of the antioxidant ubiquinol by lipoamide
dehydrogenase, thioredoxin reductase and glutathione reductase.
 Human genes: MT-ND4L, mitochondrially encoded NADH dehydrogenase 4L; MT-CYB, mitochondrially encoded cytochrome b; SURF1, surfeit 1; PDHA1, pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide
) alpha 1; MT-ATP6, mitochondrially encoded ATP synthase 6.
Several studies carried out by the Ebadi group have shown in the brain of mice from transgenic and knockout PD models that induction of MT is involved in the synthesis of coenzyme Q10, through the activation of lipoamide
dehydrogenase, enhancing the antioxidant capacity of coenzyme Q10 Ubiquinone, by increasing the ubiquinol synthesis, attenuation of a-synuclein nitration, as well as suppression of proinflammatory cytokines and TNFa .