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Listening comprehension was measured with the Oral Communication and Following Directions subtests of the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement (Woodcock, McGrew, & Mather, 2001).
preparing for a high-stake test has of the listening comprehension skill, and the extent to which they learn about or use cognitive and metacognitive strategies to their advantage.
A research section provides information about listening comprehension.
Therefore, it would be beneficial to learners if teachers and textbook writers adopted a balanced L2 instructional approach that includes both process- and product-oriented listening instruction that teaches learners how to regulate their listening comprehension in addition to assessing their listening skills.
Furthermore, listening comprehension of English narration accompanied with subtitles imposed less cognitive load on learners than those without subtitles did.
Since some researchers have found (Chang and Read 2006, 2008; Kurita 2012; Nosratinia, Ghavidel and Zaker 2015; Ratebi and Amirian 2013) that listening support in tasks enhances the learners' use of metacognitive strategies (1) in listening comprehension, they usually advise textbook writers to include the following: information about the topic so that learners can grasp detailed information; a warm up activity before listening to prepare the students for what is coming next; and vocabulary instruction, though this is the least useful form of support (Chang and Read 2006).
The background information is utilized in the "Top-down" strategy to comprehend the meaning contained in listening comprehension.
From a developmental perspective, the evidence also suggests that the relative importance of word-recognition skills and listening comprehension for reading comprehension appears to shift as school progresses.
Consequently, listening comprehension skills are crucial for reading comprehension (Torgesen, 2002).
Difficulties with decoding or listening comprehension can lead to different types of reading problems: (1) children who have difficulties only with written language, due to decoding problems, but have no difficulties in comprehending the spoken language; (2) children who, despite good decoding performance, have problems with reading comprehension; and (3) children who simultaneously have a decoding problem and difficulties in comprehension of spoken language (Aarnoutse, Brand-Gruwel, & Oduber, 1997; Hulme & Snowling, 2011; Nation, 2005).
Another common belief concerning reading is the simple view that decoding and listening comprehension proficiency will lead to reading comprehension (Hoover & Gough, 1990).
The courses also emphasize listening comprehension and building and maintaining relationships with local residents.