Each group of 20 snails was recorded for 1 hour during the exposure to their respective salinity treatment; this has been reported as sufficient time for intertidal Littorina
snails to detect changes in their surrounding environment and protect themselves from the source of stress (Sokolova et al., 2000; Sokolova and Boulding, 2004).
Previous work in the butlin group within the university of sheffield has produced a draft genome assembly for the focal species (the marine snail littorina
saxatilis) and re-sequencing has identified regions of the genome involved in adaptive differentiation between ecotypes.
This period falls on the Littorina
stage of the Baltic Sea--on the time of its significant regression (Miettinen 2002, 81; Sandgren et al.
In other Echinolittorina species, veligers remained in the plankton for 4 days before settlement (Struhsaker & Costlow 1968), whereas Littorina
brevicula remained planktonic for 7 days (Son & Hong 1998) and Epheria turrita remained planktonic for 8 days (Kolbin & Kulikova 2008).
En otras especies de prosobranquios se ha reportado que las hembras son mas numerosas que los machos con porcentajes del 80% en Bithynia leachi, del 67% en Littorina
littorea y del 63% en Rissoa parva y Turritella communis (Pelseneer, 1926).
Freezing and anoxia stresses induce expression of metallothionein in the foot muscle and hepatopancreas of the marine gastropod Littorina
En un tiempo concreto--'del' Epipaleolitico--alguna expedicion a la costa recogio conchas de Littorina
(littorea y saxatilis) y las abandono en una zona de la cueva, a modo de una 'reserva de materiales' acaso para la produccion de colgantes por perforacion--que no llegaron a consumarse--.
Imposex in Nucella lapillus and intersex in Littorina
littorea: interspecific comparison of two TBT-induced effects and their geographical uniformity.
A similar harmful pattern has been seen involving the oyster Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg, 1793), which impaired the mobility of the gastropod Littorina
littorea (Linnaeus, 1758).
They include bivalves Aequipecten, Amusium, Chlamys and Ostrea, and gastropods Cerithium, Conus, Littorina
, Monodonta, Turricula, and Turritella.
Sexual selection on phenotypic traits in a hybrid zone of Littorina
They investigated the effect of heavy metals, PCB congeneres, butyltin (BT) and PAH compounds in snails (Littorina
littorea) and DNA damage in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis).