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 (lĭ-vō′nē-ə, -vōn′yə)
A region of north-central Europe in southern Estonia and northern Latvia. Originally settled by the Livs, a Finnic people, the area was conquered in the 1200s by German knights, the Livonian Brothers of the Sword. After the dissolution of the order (1561), Livonia was contested by Poland, Russia, and Sweden, finally becoming a Russian province in 1783. In 1918 Livonia was divided between Estonia and Latvia.

Li·vo′ni·an n. & adj.
American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Copyright © 2016 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.


(Placename) of or relating to Livonia, a former Russian Baltic province, or its inhabitants
(Placename) a native or inhabitant of Livonia
Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged, 12th Edition 2014 © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2003, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2014
ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend:
Noun1.Livonian - a member of the Livonian-speaking people of LatviaLivonian - a member of the Livonian-speaking people of Latvia
Latvian - a native or inhabitant of Latvia
2.Livonian - the Finnic language spoken by the people of Livonia in Estonia and Latvia
Baltic-Finnic - a group of Finnic languages including Finnish and Estonian
Based on WordNet 3.0, Farlex clipart collection. © 2003-2012 Princeton University, Farlex Inc.
References in classic literature ?
At first it seemed strange that the son of an obscure Livonian gentleman should propose marriage to a Countess Rostova; but Berg's chief characteristic was such a naive and good natured egotism that the Rostovs involuntarily came to think it would be a good thing, since he himself was so firmly convinced that it was good, indeed excellent.
Minister of Culture Tonis Lukas, Estonian ambassador to Latvia Arti Hilpus and Margus Kasterpalu, adviser to the minister of culture, to take part in days of Livonian culture in Mazirbe.
Livonian and dialectal Estonian data show that Proto-Finnic *lintu was originally polysemous 'bird, flying insect, wild animal'.
Already Garlieb Merkel wrote about this in the late 18th century, he claimed that "slave tremulousness and distrustfulness --these are the most notable character traits of a Livonian peasant" (Merkelis 25).
Whereas he descended from a family of civil servants and lawyers, his wife, Eleonore Girgensohn, was born into a prominent Livonian family of pastors.
3000 BC-539 BC) Latvia Medieval Livonia (Bishoprics, archbishopric of Livonia, Livonian Order, Munici-pal City of Riga) (thirteenth century-sixteenth century) Lebanon Phoenicia (c.
This region represents the main areas of the Estonian and Lithuanian shelves separated by the Livonian Basin (Fig.
They also contributed to the secularisation of Prussia and the demise of the age-old dominions of German and Livonian knights.
Their topics include the history of the Franconian tone contrast, grounding Nguni depressor effects, Livonian stod, and synchronic alterations between monophthongs and diphthongs in Franconian tone accent dialects: a metrical approach.
Jelgava is a city that's witnessed devastation upon devastation as wars including the Livonian War, the First World War and the Second World War ravaged through the city to the astonishment of its inhabitants.
He also presided over Russia's defeat in the Livonian War, and his misrule contributed to the Time of Troubles and the state's devastating depopulation.