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 (lĭ-vō′nē-ə, -vōn′yə)
A region of north-central Europe in southern Estonia and northern Latvia. Originally settled by the Livs, a Finnic people, the area was conquered in the 1200s by German knights, the Livonian Brothers of the Sword. After the dissolution of the order (1561), Livonia was contested by Poland, Russia, and Sweden, finally becoming a Russian province in 1783. In 1918 Livonia was divided between Estonia and Latvia.

Li·vo′ni·an n. & adj.


(Placename) of or relating to Livonia, a former Russian Baltic province, or its inhabitants
(Placename) a native or inhabitant of Livonia
ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend:
Noun1.Livonian - a member of the Livonian-speaking people of LatviaLivonian - a member of the Livonian-speaking people of Latvia
Latvian - a native or inhabitant of Latvia
2.Livonian - the Finnic language spoken by the people of Livonia in Estonia and Latvia
Baltic-Finnic - a group of Finnic languages including Finnish and Estonian
References in classic literature ?
At first it seemed strange that the son of an obscure Livonian gentleman should propose marriage to a Countess Rostova; but Berg's chief characteristic was such a naive and good natured egotism that the Rostovs involuntarily came to think it would be a good thing, since he himself was so firmly convinced that it was good, indeed excellent.
Their topics include image-making for conquerors of English Cnut and William I, the queen consort in late-Medieval Portugal, and Caesarius of Heisterbach and the Livonian Crusade.
The Livonian War of Ivan the Terrible was used to justify Soviet territorial expansion.
Contained in Gadu gredzeni is the astonishing lengthy poem "Indrika Latviesa piezimes uz Livonijas hronikas malam" (The Notations of Henricus de Lettis in the Margins of the Livonian Chronicle), which juxtaposes intense, accusatory poetic comment with the pious thirteenth-century chronicle and tells the story of pillaging, burning, rape, and murder inflicted on a small nation by a large and powerful one in the name of an ideology - here, Christianity.
But since recruits for Livonia came from the Low German language areas of Germany, while knights came to Prussia from the Middle High German areas, the grandmasters did not consider the Livonian branch of the order a significant competitor for scarce resources.
June 23, Midsummer Festival, Livonian Order Castle, Sigulda
Wiik 1975 : 420), also in South Estonian and Livonian (Palander 1987 : 10).
Case Alternations in Five Finnic Languages: Estonian, Finnish, Karelian, Livonian and Veps
Thereafter, the Livonian War (1558-1583) and the Polish-Swedish war (1601-1625) caused severe population loss which was aggravated by the cooling of the climate in the second half of the 16th century when the Little Ice Age started.
A participant in the war of 1768-74, the Livonian nobleman Georg Ernst von Strandman, tells of a Russian cavalry detachment which cut up 1,500 Budzhak Tatars and devastated their villages and tilt carts (kibitki), even though the Tatars had already sent deputies to negotiate their transfer to the sovereignty of the Russian empress.
Estonia was relatively homogeneous in its population and landscape until its conversion to Christianity at the beginning of the 13th century, at which point it was divided into North-Estonia, which belonged to the Danes, and South-Estonia, that belonged to the Livonian Order (branch of the Teutonic Order) and the Bishop of Riga.