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loanwords and loan translations

English takes many of its words from different languages around the world. These words are broadly known as borrowings, and are subdivided into two categories: loanwords and loan translations.
A loanword is a term taken from another language and used without translation; it has a specific meaning that (typically) does not otherwise exist in a single English word. Sometimes the word’s spelling or pronunciation (or both) is slightly altered to accommodate English orthography, but, in most cases, it is preserved in its original language.
A loan translation (also known as a calque), on the other hand, is a word or phrase taken from another language but translated (either in part or in whole) to corresponding English words while still retaining the original meaning.
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A word adopted from another language and completely or partially naturalized, as very and hors d'oeuvre, both from French.



a word in one language that has been borrowed from another language and usu. naturalized, as wine, taken into Old English from Latin vinum, or macho, taken into Modern English from Spanish.
[1870–75; translation of German Lehnwort]
ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend:
Noun1.loanword - a word borrowed from another language; e.g. `blitz' is a German word borrowed into modern English
word - a unit of language that native speakers can identify; "words are the blocks from which sentences are made"; "he hardly said ten words all morning"
Latinism - a word or phrase borrowed from Latin
Gallicism - a word or phrase borrowed from French
References in periodicals archive ?
' Loan words from Filipino include bongga (extravagant, flamboyant impressive, stylish), halo-halo (a dessert made of mixed fruits, sweet beans, milk and shaved ice) and kilig (exhilaration or elation caused by an exciting or romantic experience).
In 2006, the committee issued a ban on numerous loan words and offered up substitute terms based on Farsi.
Unlike native words, loan words do not undergo alternations when they are inflected for gender and number, the selection of gender and number suffixes is highly predictable and systematic and, again unlike native words, the location of stress is preserved.
While many of the Oceanic material culture elements in Cape York Peninsula (CYP) and Torres Strait (TS) result from diffusion via speakers of Trans-Fly Papuan languages adjacent to the Strait, I show here that there has to have also been direct contact with Austronesian speakers, the material culture and linguistic signature of which is the Austronesian canoes and loan words of the CYP-TS region.
Dropping over-pronounced English loan words into everyday talk in a Korean traditional market in Seoul might be begging for a "kimchi slap" even today, let alone in Busan in the 1960s.
Even today, centuries later, there is plenty that is evocative of Andalusian glory--from Arabic loan words to Portuguese to the culinary touches that can be found in the regional markets.
The Japanese may be very nationalistic but their language is peppered with garaigo (loan words imported with very little change, for example 'handubagu' for 'handbag') as well as 'wasei-eigo' (English words that are 'japanified'-for example 'firipin-pabu,' or a pub or bar with many Filipino workers).
It would be better to refer to the former simply as (Swahili) verbs, and the latter as verbs/adjectives of Arabic origin or simply loan words, or non-indigenous words.
Examples of non-English gairaigo (foreign loan words) abound in Japanese, such as arubaito from the German.
English speakers hoping to remove Arabic loan words from their vocabulary should also consider removing "alcohol," "algebra," "cotton," and "ghoul," for starters, in addition to "haboob."
It considers the history and use of English loan words in the Korean language, discussing Choson's encounters with the West, the opening process, and English education in the late 19th century; the socio-linguistic aspects of the Enlightenment in Korea, with examples of English loan words used; the core vocabulary, linguistic characteristics, and how the words are made; and the use of loan words, different connotations and collocations, and the influence on culture.
But what makes this use of English loan words in modern Hebrew so thoroughly and hilariously meta is that English is literally littered with loan words and concepts borrowed from Hebrew.