," (2) the "perlocutionary act," and
"S issuing L to H is to prevent T so that E will not occur." (S) is the Federal Government, the authority issuing out warning (performing the locutionary act
The former is called a locutionary act
, and the latter an illocutionary force.
Through the locutionary act
(utterance) of singing, the chorus commits the illocutionary actions (discursive operations) of criticizing and ridiculing, by which they complete the perlocutionary acts (consequential actions) of insulting, offending, and dishonoring Cupido.
While, on one level, speaking or writing is already an action (a locutionary act
), on another level, we also perform actions in saying something (an illocutionary act) or by--or in consequence of--saying something (a perlocutionary act).
For of, Austin says: the act of saying something is a locutionary act
. This is a speech act whose meaning calls forth a truth versus false distinction and provokes verification or falsification.
I hereby + Present Simple Tense V <[sb.sub.sp] uses [sb.sub.sp]'s social--moral power (illocutionary act) to make what [sb.sub.sp] says about a phenomenon (locutionary act
) be taken as true (perlocutionary act)> H.
This paper shall defend the claim that factors independent of a person's linguistic competence can indeed block his ability to do things with words, but it will show that the cases that have been previously considered to be cases of illocutionary failure are instances of rhetic or locutionary act
The locutionary act
refers to a certain sentence of a language with a definite sense and reference" (the literal meaning or propositional content).
A locutionary act
is the utterance of sounds that have sense and reference and therefore meaning; the illocutionary act--Austin himself talked rather of illocutionary force--is what the speaker does or intends to do in saying what he or she says; whereas the perlocutionary act or force is what the speaker achieves through saying what is said.