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A former kingdom of western Europe west of the Rhine River. Created in the partition of the Carolingian Empire in the 9th century, Lotharingia was split in the 10th century into the duchies of Lower Lotharingia (in the present-day Low Countries and northwest Germany) and Upper Lotharingia (present-day Lorraine).

Lo′tha·rin′gi·an n. & adj.
American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Copyright © 2016 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.
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The name comes from the Latin name Lotharingia, an area in Europe that included parts of France and Germany.
The central part, to be known as Lotharingia, went to Lothar to whom also went both the imperial title and the capital city of Aachen.
This tension may have stemmed in part from the close alliance of Mezzabarba with the reform papacy's longtime supporters Beatrice of Tuscany and her husband Duke Godfrey of Lower Lotharingia. (28)
However, in the 1920s, German settlers in the Volga Region still saw themselves as at least four distinct peoples: as Germans from the Germany proper and Germans from Austria, Lotharingia, and Luxemburg.
What is most significant here, perhaps, is not so much the pre-eminence of this or that monastery or locale but the overlapping contacts linking reformers in the tenth-century from Lotharingia and Germany to France to England.
A particularly dramatic example of the former can be seen in the printed map of Lotharingia from the 1513 Strasbourg edition of Ptolemy's Geography in which arms mark specific dominions on the map as well as decorate the frame.
That kingdom was divided up, with Louis II getting Italy, Charles getting Provence and Lothar II succeeding to the Frankish heartlands, a kingdom that can for convenience be labelled Lotharingia, a long strip of territory extending from the mouth of the Rhine to the Alps.
He seems to agree with Phillips that ME could be as early as 850, and cites her provisional location of the source for the chant melodies they both use as Lotharingia. Erickson thinks that the Inchiriadon, a variant version of ME, might derive from a still earlier model on the grounds that its use of Boethius is less technical and assured than in ME itself.
The Hugonids were descendants of Lothar II, the last effective emperor of the middle kingdom of Lotharingia carved out between France and Germany for a branch of Charlemagne's lineage.
Manuscript evidence for the limited dissemination of the Romano-German pontifical highlights the diversity of penitential ordines in this period, exemplified in liturgical manuscripts from Fulda, Lotharingia, and Italy.