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A former kingdom of western Europe west of the Rhine River. Created in the partition of the Carolingian Empire in the 9th century, Lotharingia was split in the 10th century into the duchies of Lower Lotharingia (in the present-day Low Countries and northwest Germany) and Upper Lotharingia (present-day Lorraine).

Lo′tha·rin′gi·an n. & adj.
American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Copyright © 2016 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.
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He also commented `whoever heard of such a mixture of languages in one army, since there were French, Flemings, Frisians, Gauls, Allobroges [Savoyards], Lotharingians, Allemani [South Germans and Swiss], Bavarians, Normans, English, Scots, Aquitainians, Italians, Danes, Apulians, Iberians, Bretons, Greeks and Armenians'.