In sections on Assyria, northern and central Levant, and southern Levant, they consider such topics as the limits of historical geography: reconstructing Aramaean territories in the west according to the neo-Assyrian written sources, the Tell Fekheriye inscription and the western Assyrian border during the late ninth century BCE, Aramaean borders: the hieroglyphic Luwian
evidence, the borders and exchanges between Aram and Phoenicia in the ninth-to-eighth centuries BCE in Anatolia and Syria, Biblical <,S>obah: a location attempt, and the boundary between the Aramaean Kingdom of Damascus and the Kingdom of Israel.
It is these 15 kingdoms in south-eastern Anatolia and northern Syria--those that attempted to continue Hittite traditions that are today known as Neo-Hittite; these primarily spoke the Indo-European language Luwian
and carved Luwian
hieroglyphs on their monuments.
Kahn bases his proposal on references in Iron Age Hieroglyphic Luwian
inscriptions to the land of "Palastin" or the like, dated conventionally to circa the eleventh century (cf.
Either way "Tabal" is an Anatolian name rooted in the native Luwian
language and with connections to the Neo-Hittite kingdoms of the early Iron Age era.
Two inscribed monuments carved in Hieroglyphic Luwian
, the ancient language of the Hittites, found near Hama in Syria more than 50 years ago, provide a description of Kupapiyas, the only named female known from this region in the early part of the first millennium BCE.
In these lists of countries, the Old Persian name is Katpatuka, which means "the land, country of beautiful horses" . Cappadocia could come from the Luwian
, or Luvian language, meaning "Low Country".
Her introduction discusses the discovery of the Luwian
inscriptions, the historical background of the Hittite Empire 1680-1200 and successor states, biblical Hittites, the hieroglyphic script, hieroglyphic scholarship, texts, and kingship.
different scripts were in use at Ugarit: Egyptian and Luwian
Indeed, the possibility that it was originally a Luwian
loanword (75) hints at its much greater antiquity.
Palatalization and Labiovelars in Luwian
. In Proceedings of the Tenth Annual UCLA Indo-European Conference (Los Angeles, May 21-23, 1998), ed.