Scott et al., "Characterization of secreted sphingosine-1-phosphate lyases
required for virulence and intracellular survival of Burkholderia pseudomallei," Molecular Microbiology, vol.
Over 30% of known enzymes are metalloenzymes, covering all major enzyme classes: oxidoreductases, transferases, hydrolases, lyases
, isomerases, and ligases.
We applied dbCAN  with default parameters and identified a total of 301 CAZyme-coding gene homologs (Appendix S4), which includes 127 glycoside hydrolases (GH), 64 glycosyltransferases (GT), 55 carbohydrate esterases (CE), 30 with auxiliary activities (AA), 19 carbohydrate binding module (CBM), and 6 polysaccharide lyases
They cover considerations for applying process technologies in laboratory-scale and pilot-scale biocatalysis for chemical synthesis; cytochrome P450 progress in biocatalysis for synthetic organic chemistry; using hydrolases and related enzymes for synthesis; non-redux lyases
and transferases for forming bonds of carbon with carbon, oxygen, sulfur, and nitrogen; oxidations; reductions; halogenation and dehalogenation; cascade reactions; and biocatalysis for industrial process development.
Snake venom is a mixture of different enzymes like Oxydoreductase Transferase Hydrolases and Lyases
The former enzyme deesterifies pectin by the removal of methoxy residues and is called pectin methoxy esterase (PME), while the latter splits the main chain and is further classified as polygalacturonase (PG) and pectin lyases
Increased activity of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POX), phenylalanine ammonia lyase
(PAL), and tyrosine ammonia lyases
(TAL) had been reported in plants treated with various biotic and abiotic inducers of resistance [33-35].
Differing from other polysaccharide lyases
acting on the polysaccharide backbone, xanthan lyase
could cleave the linkage between the terminal mannosyl and the glucuronyl residues on the side chain by a [beta]-elimination reaction, introducing a double bond between C4 and C5 of the uronosyl residue and subsequently might be exploited for further chemical modification .
According to the mode of action and preferred substrate, pectinases can be briefly classified into two main groups : de-esterification (pectin methyl esterase) which removes methoxyl groups from pectin, and depolymerization (hydrolyses and lyases
) which cleaves the bonds between galacturonic acid units.
He covers chiral discrimination in the active site of oxidoreductases, transferases and chiral discrimination, the influence of chirality on the hydrolysis reactions within the active site of hydrolases, the influence of chirality on the reactions in the active site of lyases
, and chiral discrimination in the active site of ligases.