Illustrated alongside Stewart's article is a 4th-century limestone plinth, orphaned from the sculpture it once bore and carved with the name of Lysippos
. It is an unusually evocative object in this context.
From Kritios and Nesiotes' threateningly advancing musclemen Harmodius and Aristogeiton, known as the Tyrannicides or tyrant killers (477-476 B.C.), and Polykleitos's athletically balanced Doryphoros in contrapposto (450-400 B.C.) to Myron's unnatural but compellingly dynamic discuss throwing Diskobolus (460-450 B.C.) and Lysippos
' monumental leaning Hercules, known to us as the Farnese Hercules (4th century B.C.), Classical Greek sculpture embraced movement to the extent that it sought to blur the lines between bronze and flesh.
The Athenians Lysippos
and Timotheos are brothers--the former a rich silver merchant, the latter an unworldly Platonist.
Experts say the Alexander statue appeared to come from the workshop of Lysippos
, Alexander's personal sculptor.
He also explored Eleusis, the site of Demeter's ancient mystery cult; Corinth with its half-ruined temple picturesquely silhouetted against the monolithic rock that once housed the city's acropolis; and Sikyon, celebrated for producing some of the greatest artists, including Polykleitos, Lysippos
and Pamphilos, the master of Apelles.
During the reign of Areus I a bronze statue of the Eurotas River by Eutychides, the pupil of Lysippos
, was set up in Sparta.
It is obviously most intriguing that Ciriaco cites Donatello as one of the heirs of Phidias, Polykleiros, and Lysippos
apropos the pair of nude "Panathenaic" riders under discussion above.
They are Roman horses, and not Greek at all, but that was small comfort to the Venetians who attributed them to the great Lysippos
In a particular useful `case study', Ridgway sanely argues against the over-attribution of works to Lysippos
or even the `Lysippan' manner.
From Adolf Fuztwangler, Walter Amelung, and Georg Lippold to Walter-Herwig Schuchhardt, the method was refined, and, over the past few years, has led to a series of monographs devoted to several famous originals transmitted by large series of replicas: aside from those of Polykleitos, of which an important exhibition in Frankfurt recalled their high favor throughout Antiquity,(9) we shall cite the Cassel Apollo, the Leda of Timotheos, the Satyrs of Praxiteles, the Eros of Lysippos
, and the Farnese Hercules,(10) alongside countless detailed articles.
(*)Lampon (8996), Clouds 332,(123) Birds 521, 988, Eupolis 319, Kallias 20, Kratinos 125, Lysippos
We are told much about these classical masters: Pheidias who was famous for his colossal gold- and ivory-clad cult-images but also cast bronzes; Polykleitos who theorised about ideal proportions in his treatise called the Canon; Myron who was particularly eulogised for his life-like statues of athletes; and the prolific Lysippos
, who worked for Alexander the Great and accomplished a wide range of subjects that included the Apoxyomenos (an athlete scraping oil from his skin) and the intriguingly named 'Intoxicated Flute-Girl' (temulenta tibicina).