Apartheid South Africa sends troops to back UNITA against the MPLA
, which has military support from Cuba.
Like every neo-patrimonial system, power in Angola is extremely centralized, concentrated and personalized, with the president at the top, but--contrary to other African cases--his power and support relies much more on his ability to represent and incorporate a historical-sociological matrix, dynamics, symbolic capital and long-term power and identity project, which is at the core of the MPLA
, that comes first whenever it is perceived to be at risk.
Such decisions were not tak- en purely based on the political rhetoric of the MPLA
. The IMF completed its annual health check of the Angolan economy in June and found that the country under a new admin- istration "has made strides in setting a reform agenda geared towards macroeconomic stabil- ity and growth that benefits all its people".
There has been an attempt by Lourenco to tackle corruption within the MPLA
. Notably, this involved the removal of dos Santos' children from key positions, including the chair of Sonagol and leadership of the country's sovereign wealth fund.
(18) Not only did the freshly unearthed documents prove the independence (and belatedness) of the decision to send troops, they also appeared to corroborate the position the Cuban government maintained throughout Operation Carlotta that South African soldiers had crossed into Angolan territory prior to the arrival of its troops and that, therefore, the operation had arisen not out of a simple response to MPLA
leader Agostinho Neto's appeal for help but from Pretoria's aggression.
The addition of the core-shell polymeric nanofiller in the presence of MPLA
improved adhesion between PLA and starch.
Aluminum salts (Alum) and MPLA
are adjuvants commonly included in the formulation of licensed protein subunit vaccines, such as VLP-based vaccines against human papilloma virus (Cervarix[R], Gardasil[R]) and hepatitis B virus (EngerixB[R], Recombivax HB[R]).
Lourenco did not win a presidential election, but became president when the MPLA
won the majority of seats in parliament.
He will remain the head of the ruling MPLA
party, his daughter Isabel (Africa's richest woman) runs the state oil company, and one of his sons controls the $5 billion state investment fund.
Dos Santos will fully relinquish political power as head of the MPLA
or how much room Lourenco may get to set his own economic agenda and improve the currently weak economy.
In the last legislative elections of 2012 the MPLA
took 71.84% of the vote and the main opposition party, the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), is again polling low.
Cuban teachers, who by 1982 were covering nearly 80 percent of middle and higher education classes in Angola, strengthened the presence of the MPLA
throughout the country.