Autophagy is involved in both healthy and diseased liver [13-15] and is an intracellular self-digesting pathway, which can be divided into three main types: chaperone-mediated autophagy, microautophagy, and macroautophagy
LC3, a mammalian homolog of yeast Atg8, is known as a marker for macroautophagy
. LC3-I is localized in cytoplasm while LC3-II (the phosphatidylethanolamine-conjugated form of LC3-I) exists in the membranes of the autophagosome.
On the basis of different ways of transporting intracellular constituents to lysosomes, autophagy is divided into three types: macroautophagy
, microautophagy, and chaperonemediated autophagy .
There are three main types of autophagy: macroautophagy
, microautophagy, and chaperone mediated autophagy.
The most prevalent form of autophagy is macroautophagy
, usually simply referred to as autophagy, which is characterised by membranes that gradually grow in size to generate double membrane-structures (i.e., autophagosomes).
(70) Recently, it was reported that LDs are substrates for autophagy ("macroautophagy
"), a lysosomal pathway by which intracellular organelles and proteins are degraded to supply the cell with energy and maintain cellular homeostasis.
Maltese, "Functional specificity of the mammalian Beclin-Vps34 PI 3-kinase complex in macroautophagy
versus endocytosis and lysosomal enzyme trafficking," Journal of Cell Science, vol.
Distinct classes of phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinases are involved in signaling pathways that control macroautophagy
in HT-29 cells.
The only known mechanism whereby mitochondria are turned over is through macroautophagy
. The efficiency of this process declines with advancing age, which may play a critical role in heart senescence and age-related cardiovascular disease.
The shuttling of intracellular antigens onto MHC class II by macroautophagy
was first obtained in several cell culture models [71-75].
Kim et al., "Heme oxygenase-1 inhibits renal tubular macroautophagy
in acute kidney injury," Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol.
Based on morphological and mechanistic characteristics, three forms of autophagy are recognized to date: macroautophagy
, microautophagy, and chaperonemediated autophagy (CMA) [138, 173].