Pioneer bacteria adhere and start forming a stratified biofilm, generating chemical signals that act as attractants or deterrents for the establishment of microalgae, spores of algae, fungi, and protozoa; then comes the settlement of invertebrate larvae, known as macrofouling
(Fusetani & Clare, 2006).
Monitoring and control of macrofouling
mollusks in fresh water systems, 2nd edition.
As shown in Figure 2, the first stage of the program will identify if there are any macrofouling
organisms on the surface of the ship hull using camera in Raspberry Pi.
Hence, the duration of the vessel staying stationary will enable the colonizing of micro- and macrofouling
as explained below.
A review of marine macrofouling
communities with special reference to animal fouling.
Pages 371-386 in Monitoring and control of macrofouling
mollusks in fresh water systems.
Figure 21 presents an example of a hull with severe macrofouling
The subsequent onset of macrofouling
may be preceded by the formation of bacterial biofilms (bacterial fouling) and such a biofilm may have a deleterious effect on the ability of the surface to remain free from larger fouling organisms.
bow and stern thrusters, fin stabilizers, propellers and propeller shafts, rudders, and out-of-water block marks), must not be "significantly in excess" of five percent macrofouling
is defined as large, distinct multicellular organisms visible to the human eye such as barnacles, tubeworms, or fronds of algae.
Also, according to the standard of ASTM 3621 the macrofouling
coverage of panels coated with different coatings was also evaluated in the East China Sea for 2 months (Fig.