The article, "Ibudilast sensitizes glioblastoma to temozolomide by targeting Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor
," is the first publication reporting the potential clinical utility of MN-166 for GBM.
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor
, TNF-[alpha], IL-1[beta], IL-6, and IL-8, and monocytes are in the peritoneal fluid of endometriosis patients (1).
When investigating how exosomes exert their effects on liver cells, Lyden and his team found that pancreatic cancer exosomes contain a protein called macrophage migration inhibitory factor
(16.) Vivarelli M, D'Urbano LE, Stringini G, Ghiggeri GM, Caridi G, Donn R, Tozzi A, Emma F, De Benedetti F: Association of the macrophage migration inhibitory factor
"173*C allele with childhood nephrotic syndrome.
Intracoronary ACS levels of cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, IL-17, TNF-[alpha], tissue plasminogen activator inhibitor (tPAI)-1, and macrophage migration inhibitory factor
, MIF) are increased when compared with aortic blood [9,12,13].
McKeown et al., "Macrophage migration inhibitory factor
induces macrophage recruitment via CC chemokine ligand 2," The Journal of Immunology, vol.
Several cytokines and chemokines, such as CCL2, interleukin IL-6 and IL-1[beta], macrophage migration inhibitory factor
(MIF), and TNF-[alpha], can be released by both adipocytes and macrophages [157, 158].
Coeuru et al., "Protective role of macrophage migration inhibitory factor
in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis," The FASEB Journal, vol.
highlight the role of macrophage migration inhibitory factor
(MIF) as a regulator of NRF2-driven gene expression.
The pharmaceutical effect of baicalin is reported to be associated with macrophage migration inhibitory factor
downregulation, the quantity of macrophages, and the amount of M macrophage-related cytokines and macrophage inflammatory protein-3a .
According to the company, MN-166 (ibudilast) is a first-in-class, orally bioavailable, small molecule phosphodiesterase (PDE) -4 and -10 inhibitor and a macrophage migration inhibitory factor
(MIF) inhibitor that suppresses pro-inflammatory cytokines and promotes neurotrophic factors.