About 18% of infants were large for gestational age (LGA), 10% were macrosomic
and there were no differences between the types of maternal diabetes in prevalence of LGA and macrosomia.
A recent study reported that the women suffering from GDM had increased chances of having a macrosomic
baby without having the increased risk for other maternal or neonatal complications.10 Additionally, females with GDM are more prone to develop T2DM in their later lives.24
CD of the fetus in the OP position may be indicated when the fetus is estimated to be macrosomic
, the station is high (biparietal diameter palpable on abdominal examination), or when the parturient has an android pelvis (narrow fore-pelvis and anterior convergence of the pelvic bone structures in a wedge shape).
 Although these pregnancies do not carry the same risks as pregestational DM, recent literature has shown that babies born to mothers with GDM are hyperinsulinaemic, often macrosomic
, and at increased risk of shoulder dystocia, birth trauma, caesarean delivery and neonatal hypoglycaemia.
Since they found that 56% of the newborns with a heterozygous HNF4A mutation were macrosomic
, birth weight was considered to be related with individual genetic characteristics as well as the maternal intra-uterine environment (6).
In terms of neonatal outcomes, the GDM group was at significantly increased risk of having macrosomic
neonates, preterm neonates ( P = 0.014), and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit admission ( P = 0.021).
Patients with a history of GDM/impaired glucose tolerance/DM, unexplained stillbirth, a macrosomic
baby, congenital anomalies or birth injuries were excluded.
Is routine abdominal ultrasonography necessary in macrosomic
newborns with difficult delivery?
A recent randomized control study suggested that labour induction for macrosomic
foetuses at gestational age 37-39 weeks reduces the risks of dystocia and collarbone fracture while increasing the likelihood of spontaneous vaginal birth .
Chabra, "Umbilical cord haematoma and adrenal haemorrhage in a macrosomic
neonate with anaemia," BMJ Case Reports, vol.
The originality of our study is that we selected only obese GDM mothers and their macrosomic
offsprings and we determined Th1/Th2 lymphocyte differentiation by measuring their respective mRNA in purified T cell lymphocytes from these subjects.
It could reduce appetite and food intake and might contribute to the phenomenon of catch-down growth seen in macrosomic
infants following birth [12, 30].