Formado pelos gostos da classe media, leitora dos meios de circulacao em massa, o magazinist
bem-sucedido, equivalente a Nathaniel Parker Willis, devia transformar-se, com igual facilidade, em contista, ensaista, paragraphist (redator de pequenas noticias) e poeta, explicou Auerbach (1989), evocando o memoravel estudo de Walter Benjamin (1936).
They were, as little magazinist Gelett Burgess noted, a medium of "personal expression" (19 emphasis added).
Influential little magazinist, Walter Blackburn Harte, for example, took a middle ground, arguing that a distinctive American literature would combine the "audacity and rebellion of America's new generation" with avant-garde European trends ("A Resume").
Indeed, the practice of changing monthly covers on magazines, initiated by graphic artist and little magazinist Will Bradley, was prevalent in little magazines before becoming standard industry practice in the twentieth century (Koch 36).
These producers of and contributors to little magazines, whom I call little magazinists, were born into and came of age in a period that marked a transition from genteel to progressive values and the rise of a professional-managerial class that included doctors, lawyers, teachers, medical men, engineers, architects, corporate managers, and government workers, as well as an increasingly professionalized cadre in a number of literary, artistic, and intellectual domains, including journalists, writers, editors, advertising men and women, and commercial artists.
It was this social background that informed the little magazinists of this period, many of whom were not, as were most of their modernist counterparts, part of the literary and artistic elite.
Expressing a rare critique, one British magazinist
, while finding Retzsch's Mephistopheles 'worthy the phantom creation of Goethe', nevertheless observed that Retzsch was generally 'too profuse' in the 'introduction of phantoms and demons'.
At the same time, the variety of fields in which authors could participate increased dramatically during the last part of the 18th century and the whole 19th century: newspapers and journalism, political campaigns, literature both for the masses as for the elites, treatises, intellectual societies, magazinists
, and reviewers.