Having collected oral traditions in Makassarese
and Bugis-speaking areas of South Sulawesi, I would suggest that Makassarese
oral traditions which claim to speak for the past have a wider and somewhat different focus than the author believes.
Competition came from the Dutch, who maintained a precarious foothold in West Timor throughout the period; Chinese and Makassarese
(Sulawesi) traders who had long been active in the region; and a renegade community of part-Portuguese freelance traders known as the Topasses or 'black Portuguese'.
(71) In the early twentieth century Javanese became a self-conscious label for those who spoke the Javanese language as their mother tongue, and the Malay-speaking people of Batavia, of very mixed Balinese, Chinese, Makassarese
and other origins, adopted the name 'Betawi', and were so recorded in colonial censuses.
kings were replaced by Company officials, and access to spices was denied, disrupting the entire system.
We examine here a pair of texts containing descriptions of Makassarese
politics from outside the perspective of Gowa, Makassar's dominant power and the architect of the 'official' chronicles that dominate studies of the region's history.
Resentment of that authority and dominance is often expressed by Makassarese
who point out that most successful and best-known business entrepreneurs are Bugis, and that the province has never had a governor of Makassar ethnicity.
They were probably also left alone because they were too distant from the Topass and Portuguese power centres whereas the central Timorese principalities of Cailaco and Wewiku-Wehali were attacked and plundered by a Topass force in 1665 precisely because they had sought an association with the Makassarese
. However, with the Dutch defeat of Makassar in 1667, the 'jurisdiction' (jurisdictie) of Gowa on Timor was declared ended and several places that had been associated with the Makassarese
sought the help of the Dutch.
Consequently, it diminishes their reciprocal interaction with the local masses, which has prevented them from becoming Makassarese
in terms of their titles, language, marriage policies, and kinship system (p.
However, guli 'rudder' also occurs in Yolngu languages on the Arnhem Land coast, and (an-)goli in neighbouring Burarra, where they are thought to be among the many ISEA loans acquired on this coast through past annual contact with Makassarese
and Buginese trepangers, both of whose languages have guli[eta] 'rudder' (Alpher 2017:133).
(7) Christian Pelras, "Patron-Client Ties among the Bugis and Makassarese
of South Sulawesi", Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land-en Volkenkunde 156, no.
This ethnic group was born from the combination of various groups such as Sundanese, Malay, Javanese, Arab, Balinese, Bugis, Makassarese
, Ambonese, and Chinese.
Early studies on Tamanic (von Kessel 1850) made note of similarities between these languages and Makassarese
(of the South Sulawesi subgroup) and Hudson (1978) classified Tamanic as Exo-Bornean, indicating that it is not closely related to any Bornean language.