Johnson was convicted by an all-white jury in June, 1913 for his consensual relationship with a Caucasian woman and was charged under the Mann Act
, which was passed in 1910 and banned taking women over state lines for "immoral purposes."
Specifically, it could challenge the US Mann Act
, which prevents the transport of females across state lines for "immoral purposes".
Braun aka "Nici", who was in the business for 15 years, was caught in October 2007, when an FBI agent posing as a "Platinum Club member" lured her into violating the Mann Act
by transporting a woman - identified in court papers as "J.C." - from California to New York City.
Earlier this month, Mr Trump pardoned the heavyweight boxer Jack Johnson, who was convicted in 1913 of violating the Mann Act
for transporting a woman across state lines for "immoral purposes".
Johnson was convicted in 1913 by an all-white jury for violating the Mann Act
for traveling with his white girlfriend.
Pliley in 2014's Policing Sexuality: The Mann Act
and the Making of the FBI, "but it had the added effect of federalizing this 'protection.'" Before the Mann Act
, the Bureau's "sphere of activity centered on the mid-Atlantic states on the Eastern Seaboard." To effectively enforce the new law, the agency "had to establish itself throughout the country, setting up field offices and local representatives in each state."
These movements culminated in the passage of the Mann Act
. Pliley explains the Act's constitutional ambiguities, the legal challenges that expanded its reach, and the ways that its investigations extended the manpower and purview of the Bureau of Investigation (later renamed the Federal Bureau of Investigation or FBI).
Policing Sexuality traces the enforcement of a single law, the White-Slave Traffic Act, or Mann Act
, which is still in effect today, from its original passage in 1910.
Pliley presents this treatise on the 1910 Mann Act
written to combat sex trafficking, and the subsequent the rise of the FBI fueled by complex and often problematic discourses around sexuality and womenAEs agency.
Congress enacted the Mann Act
, formally known as the White Slave
By the time it was renamed the Federal Bureau of Investigation in 1935', the agency had investigated tens of thousands of Americans for alleged violation of the Mann Act
. Pliley has found that a sizable portion of those cases involved not commercial vice but relations between older men and girls, adultery, promiscuous teenage girls, and interracial couples.