Mantrayana differs from the Perfection Path (paramitayana) Mahayana Buddhism that historically preceded it in its emphasis on the ritual entering of a circle of divinities (a mandala) and on the recitation of sacred formulas (mantra)--the production of sounds whose wavelengths cause fundamental universal powers to resonate.
When 'the Mantrayana becomes culturally important outside India', he writes, 'it is principally through the agency of official patronage, either aristocratic or imperial.
An early Mantrayana text, the Karandavyuha sutra (about which more below), includes the term vajrakayasarira ('having a body made of vajra'), however, and perhaps this sutra was known in Sumatra.
Sumatra, therefore, was fertile ground for Mantrayana Buddhism.
18) Since Cunda's spell is presented in the Karandavyuha sutra as a proclamation of the obtaining of wisdom, it is conceivable that this early (or proto-) Mantrayana text, mentioned above, played a role at Chandi Mendut.
The question of what additional Mantrayana texts were known has to be addressed on the basis of evidence of architectural remains, inscriptions and texts preserved in Java and Bali.
26) Since these texts in general have ties to the Mantrayana promulgated by Vajrabodhi and Amoghavajra, there are excellent reasons for supposing the presence of the texts in Java in the eighth century.
This puts the onus on the Borobudur terraces to prove or disprove that Mantrayana thinking at some point became publicly manifest.
Was this re-conceptualisation due primarily to the influence of identifiable Sanskrit Mantrayana texts?
There in the same page (15) he continues to say, "In the 10th century the Tantric phase developed in Northern India, Kashmir and Nepal into the monstrous and poly-demonist doctrine, the Kalachakra, with its demoniacal Buddhas, which incorporated the Mantrayana
practices and called itself the Vajrayana.
Lokesh Chandra has further explored the connection of the Vajrayana and Mantrayana
schools of Buddhism, as well as those of the Prajnaparamita, with the south, especially the city of Kanci, and the spread of these traditions from the south to the northwest and the east.