manualism


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manualism

the teaching of communication through the use of hand signals to the deaf. — manualist, n.
See also: Deafness
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When manualism comes effectively to an end at Vatican II, one of the causes for its eventual disuse was its singular focus on sin; (11) at the same time, however, there was the added criticism that in fact, the later books of moral pathology were light on sinners
Reassessing the importance of deaf educator Jane Elizabeth Groom's emigration scheme, which relocated unemployed deaf Britons to the Canadian prairies, and disclosing the eugenic resistance it met with by Bell and the father of eugenics, Francis Galton, Esmail shows how deaf advocators of manualism responded to eugenics with a "social constructivist model of deafness," which identified disability not in deaf bodies but in the social prejudices against the deaf (154).
Such exhibitions were particularly significant in deciding the controversial question of which system of deaf education--oralism, manualism, or a combination of the two--was most successful for deaf students.
The defining characteristic of moral manualism, as Keenan describes it, is its reliance on rules for moral behavior.
This part is at odds with, if not the oralism of his day, then most certainly with the oralism of our contemporary time, which itself dates back to a decision to whole-heartedly embrace oralism and eschew manualism at a notorious 1880 conference of deaf educators in Milan.
Manualism did not appear important for basic religious instruction at the girls' school.
Called manualism during the nineteenth century, the language arrived in the United States with Laurent Clerc, a deaf Frenchman, who helped establish the first permanent deaf school in Hartford, Connecticut, in 1817.
Oralist advocates for the implant made similar claims, and the implant was "wholeheartedly supported by the oralist establishment as a final blow to manualism, eradicating once and for all the need to sustain a separate Deaf community with its own Sign Language" (Montgomery 100).
Increasingly manualism would be replaced in the institutions of deaf education by oralism, which taught lip-reading and speech, usually with poor results and at the expense of adequate early language development.
This shift from manualism to oralism not coincidentally involved the jettisoning of Deaf teachers--so that while 41 percent of teachers of the Deafwere themselves deafin 1858, only 15 percent were by 1920.
Several controversial issues are then examined, including teaching the deaf through oralism versus manualism, residential versus local schools, vocational training versus academic education, and training of teachers.
Haring drafted the document, so it is no surprise that its emphases on Scripture, on charity, (45) and on the exalted vocation of discipleship capture the synthesis of the revisionist vision that replaces manualism.

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