To move toward true dialogue would require consideration of a more diverse array of theological and philosophical sources in the Catholic tradition beyond what remains largely a carryover from the manualist
tradition of neo-Thomism.
The much-maligned "Catholic Ghetto" of the manualist
age at least provided some buffer against wholesale assimilation to the alien elements of modernity, even if the theology of the period was often a rarified academic exercise.
Indeed, it should go without saying that, first the Second Vatican Council, then John Paul II's Veritatis Splendor (1993), and now the current papacy not only are going beyond the methods of manualist
"moral theology" but in many respects are subverting it too.
Rightly Raphael Gallagher warns us against reducing the manualist
era to a monolithic period without any of its own developments.
Cathleen Kaveny, Complicity with Evil, 42 CRITERION 20, 24-26 (2003), which reviews the Roman Catholic manualist
tradition of cooperation.
It's a semi-scholarly treatment that traces the frequent use of religious rhetoric by Deaf members to support sign language, and it analyzes Gallaudet's use of religious references in his speeches and presentations, considers different religious perspectives of the manualist
and oralist trains of thought surrounding sign language, and examines this rhetoric in churches and other places deaf people congregate.
completely than the pre-conciliar manualist
Reading Victorian Deafness is also punctuated with a number of protagonists from both sides of the manualist/oralist debate--including Alexander Graham Bell and Charles Darwin from the oralist side and Edward Miner and Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet from the manualist
side--providing the reader both with a sense of continuity between the chapters and a number of important figures to grow acquainted with as the various aspects of the debate are investigated.
Is the encyclical recommending a return to manualist
moral theology in its emphasis of the law?
on which oralist and manualist
thinkers, hearing and deaf readers can
And they recoiled from the bone-dry, lifeless character of the neo-Thomist "manualist
" tradition, which they thought reduced the great drama of salvation to textbook propositions and made Christianity seem unappealing and irrelevant.
Proportionalists, as they came to be known, responded by labeling the manualist
understanding "physicalist" and "casuistic." The proportionalists argued for an alternative interpretation in which the exercise of reason to intend the greater good in a situation of conflicting goods justified certain acts.