However, in many respects their focus was simply on a specific aspect of the same early-mid 20th century mind-set that was more broadly reflected in the later series; in this case the way that the Pakeha state had co-opted aspects of Maoritanga
as part of its own self-identity, at a time when New Zealand believed that it had the best race-relations in the world.
Ways of knowing include ways of being, which include our own understandings of our Aboriginality, or Maoritanga
for Maori students.
These events perpetuate fundamental principles that tie and bind Maori together; reinforcing the Maori language and Maori cultural practices that affirm our Maoritanga
, our being Maori, through observation, participation, and practice.
It was Kohanga Reo that connected me with my Maoritanga
and Ngati Tuwharetoa Iwi.
She is the author of various articles and a French book on Maoritanga
and has had wide experience with the media, including Arte French/ German TV channel, Radio France Internationale and the BBC.
wellbeing and identity: Kapa Haka as a vehicle for Maori health promotion (Master's thesis).
For example, Pakeha tertiary educator Ockwell (2012) from the University of Otago school of Physical Education describes using waka ama through partnerships established with local tangatawhenua to teach students about Maoritanga
Growing up kaapo Maori: WhUnau, identity, cultural well-being and health [E tipu kaapo Maa ori nei: Whanaungatanga, Maaramatanga, Maoritanga
Of the Polynesian 'connection' she makes an important observation: that the conceptualisation of Polynesian 'as something Maori' can only be achieved by 'going through Maoritanga
rather than departing from it' (p.
Given these controversies, this essay will analyse what postcolonial 'third' spaces of Maoritanga
(Maoriness) the written and filmed version of Once Were Warriors negotiate within New Zealand neocoloniality from a Bakhtinian perspective of identity formation.
In the New Zealand context, in recent years there has been a swing away from the entrenched positions according to which non-indigenous critics, on the one side, stipulate that Maori literature is defined primarily by a writer's ethnicity and the literature's protest against the wider society's marginalization of Maori beliefs while, on the other side, Maori commentators argue that non-indigenous critics are off-limits or should acknowledge their restricted entry in the form of apology when they engage in evaluations of the Maoritanga
(Maoriness) of a text.
Rather, it has ridden on the coat-tails of the broader cultural renaissance of, and political solicitude towards Maoritanga
(the Maori culture, customs, language and the Maori 'way' in general) that began in the 1980s.