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n.1.The philosophy of modern thinkers who follow Kant in his general theory of knowledge, esp. of a group of German philosophers including F. A. Lange, H. Cohen, Paul Natorp, and others.
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Moynahan (history, Bard College) highlights the influence of the Marburg School's Hermann Cohen and the 18th century mathematician Gottfried Liebniz and uses those influences as a means of understanding how Cassirer and the Marburg school sought to transform the philosophical project of Immanuel Kant in order to investigate the leading edge of contemporary science (particularly in fields such as group theory and logic), radically recast the problem of appearance and reality, and to construct a basis for the political definition of rights and democracy.
This approach has a venerable tradition, going back to the Marburg school of Hermann Cohen and Paul Natorp, contrasting with ontological interpretations offered by thinkers such as Heidegger and more recently Guyer.
At the end of the 19th century, German academic philosophy was dominated by the two major schools of Neo-Kantianism, the Marburg School, and the Baden, or Southwest, School.
He introduces us to the Marburg School and to Neo-Kantianism, which he characterizes as a nuanced reaction to positivism and scientism and a rejection of irrationalism.