41) Another pair of terms are maskilim
and ohave sekhel, "intellectuals" and "lovers of reason"; or as we might express these same constructs in more contemporary critical idiom, "authorial audience" and "interpretive community.
17) The ideals of Bildung carried on the values inherent in the ideal of the talmid hakham while resonating with the secularization, moral individualism, and goals of regeneration promoted by the Jewish Enlightenment--the Haskalah--and its votaries, the maskilim
According to a report in Yated Ne'eman, one of the speakers, Rabbi Efraim Wachsman, declared bloggers to be "actors in the tradition of Korach, the Tziddukim, and the Maskilim
," traditional archetypes for rebellion against Torah authority.
The passionate desire of the maskilim
for knowledge (which included mainly the natural sciences, but Hebrew, European languages and philosophy as well), their intense curiosity, their urge to acquire knowledge that was not accessible in the cultural circles of traditional Jewish society were all hallmarks of the early-18th-century transformation of Jewish culture.
In Ostrow, Plotzki was well regarded as a communal leader, drawing together the town's "Hasidim and maskilim
to a source of blessing and spiritual beneficence, for every word that came from his mouth was full of wisdom and knowledge.
The efforts of Jewish maskilim
, initiators of the Jewish Enlightenment, also contributed to the creation of the new Jew, characterized as "man," "citizen," and "Jew" (Feiner 2004:87-162).
In contrast to the raucous plays of the Purim tradition, the maskilim
(Enlightenment proponents) hoped to introduce refined, European-style drama into Jewish literature.
Spector focusing specifically on Byron's influence and impact on Jewish readers and academics with individual chapters respectively devoted to Bryon and the English Jews, the Maskilim
, the Yiddishists, and the Zionists.
Biale argues that the Russian maskilim
(adherents of the Jewish Enlightenment) in the first half of the 19th century were historically insignificant because of their small number and the marginality of their position in Jewish society.
Nach einer Inkubationszeit von rund fUnzig Jahren, in denen die frUhen Maskilim
sich von der "Schmach intellektueller Unterlegenheit" und dem Zwang der jUdischen Orthodoxie zu befreien suchten, konsolidierte sich diese Reformbewegung zwischen 1778 und 1797 und fUhrte zur Entstehung der Haskala-Bewegung.
In his essay "al-Majnun al-Ta'ih" (The Wandering Madman), (49) he alludes to the social price he had to pay by adopting a stance considered suspicious, but, like the maskilim
, he saw the battle as "the war of progress and light against backwardness and darkness.
He covers the impact of deism, religious reforms, the attitude of the Maskilim
to the Talmud, the controversy around the first Reform temple, and the efforts of Wessely, Schnaber, Satanow, Saul Berlin and Euchel.