Accurate and deep knowledge regarding the TMJ anatomy and adjacent region is paramount for optimal diagnosis and proper care.1 TMDs have been documented as a group of patterns of dysfunction of TMJ and their related muscles, dentition and the supporting structures.2,3 The clinical features include tenderness of muscles particularly masticatory muscles
, limited range of mandibular movement, clicking sound, headaches, earaches, pain-ful and attritioned dentition.
There are a heterogeneous group of pathologies that affect the Temporomandibular joint, the masticatory muscles
, or both are characterized by a classically described triad of clinical signs, such as muscle and/or Temporomandibular joint pain; Temporomandibular joint sounds; and restriction, deviation, or deflection while wide mouth opening or while doing any kind of functional movements.
It is characterized by a loss of voluntary control of facial, lingual, pharyngeal and masticatory muscles
in the presence of preserved reflexive and automatic functions of the same muscles (3,4).
They posit that the thicker splint induces a further lengthening of masticatory muscles
and, consequently, a possible reduction in proprioceptive feedback.
A group of disorders involving the temporomandibular joints and masticatory muscles
or both and causing pain and dysfunction is defined as temporomandibular disorders (TMD) (7, 8).
As to the degree of infection, cysticercosis was classified as severe when at least eight viable or calcified cysts were found distributed in the carcass as follows: two or more cysts simultaneously located in at least two selected sites simultaneously located in at least two selected sites of the carcass examined at the slaughter inspection (masticatory muscles
, tongue, heart, diaphragm and its pillars, esophagus, and liver), totaling at least four cysts; and four or more cysts located in the forequarter (neck, chest, and palate muscles) or in the rear quarter (thigh, rump, and loin) muscles.
Morphological differences in cranial size are related to differences in diet and have consequences in the performance of the masticatory muscles
. For example, volume, length and position of the temporal and masseter muscles vary among bat species from different dietary groups (Dumont, 1999; Freeman, 1981; 1984, Nogueira et al., 2005, Swartz et al., 2003; Van Cakenberghe et al., 2002; Dumont et al., 2009).
Then each student was examined on a conventional chair with the use of a dental mirror, an electric torch, a Vernier caliper (for the evaluation of mouth opening), and a stethoscope (for evaluations of joint sounds) and by palpating the masticatory muscles
, while each subject held the questionnaire in her hand.
In this same line of reasoning of extra-oral alterations and muscle interdependence, some authors mention that the contraction of the masticatory muscles
is associated with the increase of the electrical activity of the trapezium and sternocleidomastoid muscles, mainly in the existence of a chewing side preference [7,8].
The masticatory muscles
were relatively larger than in human (Fig.
We suggested that adaptive or assistive technology should be recommended for patients with hyposalivation and dysphagia, as support therapies of gustatory and neuromuscular mechanical stimulation, in order to strengthen the muscular tone, in particular, the masticatory muscles
, and to increase the production of saliva.
TMD signs and symptoms may include local pain in the TMJ and/or masticatory muscles
, limited mouth movements, TMJ sounds, and headaches [5-7].