, and elephants: biology, behavior, and fossil record.
This new fossil vertebrate assemblage was recovered from a test-pit excavation that includes 46 bird species (Steadman and Rincon, 2007); bats (Czaplewski et al., 2005); canids (Prevosti and Rincon, 2007); saber tooth cats (Rincon, 2006); equids (Rincon et al., 2006); armadillos, pampatheres, glyptodonts (Rincon et al., 2008); ground sloths, camelids, mastodonts
(McDonald et al., 1999); and nine rodent species (Rincon, 2005).
On the Conquest of Peru, Mexico, Bogota, Natchez, and Talomeco in the Thirteenth Century, by the Mongols, accompanied by Elephants, and the Local Agreement of History and Tradition, with the Remains of Elephants and Mastodonts
, found in the New World.
Mammoths and mastodonts
went extinct, as did the stocky dire wolves, giant short-faced bear, and to the west, fierce saber-toothed cats.
Stratigraphy.--The Shafer Mastodont
Locality, like most of the other lakes and bogs that have yielded mastodonts
in Indiana, is a shallow deposit of aquatic sediments that was truncated early in the Holocene.
All of the discussants at this yearly forum doubtlessly would agree that the most awesome and important members of the Pleistocene fauna are the mastodonts
and mammoths, huge proboscideans (elephant-like beasts) that were the dominant members of the terrestrial community of the time.
Lucas & Effinger (1991) and Lucas & Morgan (1997) reviewed the published records and accessible museum collections of mammoths (genus Mammuthus) and mastodonts
(Mammut americanum) from New Mexico, respectively (see also Harris 1993).
FRICK, C., 1933: New remains in trilophodont-tetrabelodont mastodonts
In South America, after colonizing this continent in the middle Pleistocene up until ~10,000 years ago, jaguars coexisted with the local large herbivorous community composed of giant ground sloth Megatherium, forest elephants Cuvieronius, mastodonts
Stegomastodon, camel-like Macrauchenia, huge armadillos Glyptodon, wild horses Hippidion, and Toxodons, animals similar to hippopotamus or rhinos (Lessa and Farina, 1996; Turner and Anton, 1997; Alroy, 2001; Cione et al., 2003; Soibelzon et al., 2008).
FRICK, C., 1933: New remains in trilopho-donttetrabelodont mastodonts
This is the seminal paper on the mastodonts
and mammoths of Michigan.
TOBIEN, H., 1973: On the evolution of mastodonts