She played a pivotal role in the discovery of DNA's structure, but her contribution was overlooked while her colleagues Francis Crick, James Watson and Maurice Wilkins
shared a 1962 Nobel for the discovery.
Yet her name was not mentioned by Francis Crick, James Watson or Maurice Wilkins
as they picked up the prestigious accolade.
Alan MacDiarmid was a recipient in 2000 for chemistry; Ernest Rutherford, also for chemistry in 1908; and Maurice Wilkins
, for physiology or medicine in 1962.
Only recently the Cold Spring Harbour Laboratory in the US cut its ties with James Watson, the Nobel Prize-winning geneticist who, with Maurice Wilkins
and Francis Crick, first proposed the double helix structure of DNA, citing his "unsubstantiated and reckless" remarks about race and intelligence.
After "unequivocally" rejecting Watson's "unsubstantiated and reckless" opinions, the Laboratory stripped the 90-year-old scientist of all of his titles, noting that the institution "condemns the misuse of science to justify prejudice." Watson rose to international scientific fame in 1953 after helping discover DNA's double helix structure with fellow geneticists Maurice Wilkins
and Francis Crick.
Dr Francis Crick and Dr James Watson together with Maurice Wilkins
won the Nobel Prize for medicine in 1962 for their work in the discovery of the DNA molecules.
Using X-ray research from Maurice Wilkins
and Rosalind Franklin, the pair found the shape of deoxyribonucleic acid, the molecule that contains hereditary information for cells.
What shines through the text is the fact that Crick and Watson could not have achieved their discovery without the ground work of co-operating scientists such as Rosalind Franklin and with additional input from Linus Pauling and Maurice Wilkins
. This results in a clear message that great scientific discoveries are built upon the work of a team and that the altruism in sharing steps along the way leads to effective results.
Why there has not much progress in the genetic science and medical treatments since James Watson, Francis Crick and Maurice Wilkins
received their Nobel Prize for the DNA discovery is due to the missing DNA Alphabet.
This double helix structure was first discovered by Francis Crick and James Watson with the help of Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins
. The human genome is made of 3.2 billion bases of DNA but other organisms have different genome sizes.
Reportedly, she achieved this despite being patronized and treated like an underling by some of her male colleagues, including her close colleague at King's, physicist and molecular biologist Maurice Wilkins
James Watson was awarded the Nobel medal along with his colleagues Francis Crick and Maurice Wilkins
in 1962, for discovering the double helix structure of the DNA, which paved the way to understanding the very formation of an organism in the cellular level.