Most of them had been sealed inside fossil Mercenaria
campechiensis or southern quahogs.
An example is the hard clam Mercenaria mercenaria
, where unsustainable fishing mortality led to recruitment overfishing in both North Carolina and New York (Peterson 2002, Kraeuter et al.
The bivalves are eastern oysters, Crassostrea virginica; northern quahogs, Mercenaria mercenaria
; softshell clams, Mya arenaria; and bay scallops, Argopecten irradians spp.
meretrix (Li et al., 2011), 50.0% in clam Mercenaria mercenaria
was 65.0% (Wang et al., 2010) and 36.0% in freshwater mussel Villosa lienosa (Wang et al., 2015).
En cuanto a la acidificacion, se reportaron menores tasas de crecimiento para larvas de Mercenaria mercenaria
, Argopecten irradians y C.
There are two species of hard clam in Florida: the northern quahog (Mercenaria mercenaria
) and the southern quahog (Mercenaria
The parasites, Minchinia tapetis and Minchinia mercenaria
, are normally found in the USA and have devastated commercial clam farms in Virginia in the USA.
Aureococcus anophagefferens causes severe, density-dependent growth inhibition, mass mortalities, recruitment failure, and reduced clearance rates of commercially important, suspension-feeding bivalves occurring in these shallow bays, including blue mussels, Mytilus edulis; northern quahogs (= hard clams), Mercenaria mercenaria
; and bay scallops, Argopecten irradians (reviewed by Bricelj and Lonsdale, 1997; Gobler et al., 2005).