edulis, the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica Gmelin, 1791), and Mercenaria mercenaria
under varying food concentrations and indicated that the last species exhibited the poorest feeding efficiency at the highest ration level (reduced feeding rate, with increased pseudofecal production).
The shells of Mercenaria mercenaria
are composed of three distinct shell layers: an outer prismatic layer and a middle and an inner homogeneous layer.
For the cross-species transferability tests, DNA extraction from adductor muscle tissues using the same method was conducted in three other clam species, including Mercenaria mercenaria
, Gomphina aequilatera, and Meretrix lyrata, belonging to three different genus of the family Veneridae (Fig.
The bivalves are eastern oysters, Crassostrea virginica; northern quahogs, Mercenaria mercenaria
; softshell clams, Mya arenaria; and bay scallops, Argopecten irradians spp.
meretrix (Li et al., 2011), 50.0% in clam Mercenaria mercenaria
was 65.0% (Wang et al., 2010) and 36.0% in freshwater mussel Villosa lienosa (Wang et al., 2015).
The effects of elevated carbon dioxide concentrations on the metamorphosis, size, and survival of larval hard clams (Mercenaria mercenaria
), bay scallops (Argopecten irradians), and Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica).
There are two species of hard clam in Florida: the northern quahog (Mercenaria mercenaria
) and the southern quahog (Mercenaria campechiensis).
(1973): Petroleum hydrocarbons in Narragansett Bay.1.survey of hydrocarbons in sediments and clams (Mercenaria mercenaria
Aureococcus anophagefferens causes severe, density-dependent growth inhibition, mass mortalities, recruitment failure, and reduced clearance rates of commercially important, suspension-feeding bivalves occurring in these shallow bays, including blue mussels, Mytilus edulis; northern quahogs (= hard clams), Mercenaria mercenaria
; and bay scallops, Argopecten irradians (reviewed by Bricelj and Lonsdale, 1997; Gobler et al., 2005).
Changes in phytoplankton communities from diatom/dinoflagellate dominants to greater abundances of microflagellates, raphidophytes, and bloom forming pelagophytes (e.g., Aureococcus anophagefferens, the causative agent of brown tides) often lead to dramatic losses of shellfish resources, (e.g., hard clams, Mercenaria mercenaria
, and bay scallops, Argopecten irradians).
Carmichael of the Dauphin Island Sea Lab and her colleagues have used stable isotope techniques on the clam Mercenaria mercenaria
, to yield valuable information on wastewater inputs in coastal waters.
To identify other baits, the activity in the pallial nerve of whelks was determined during exposure of the osphradium to odorant solutions prepared from horseshoe crab eggs, horseshoe crab hemolymph, and hard clam (Mercenaria mercenaria