Escobal and Torero (2000, 2003) probably failed to detect the effects of meridionality on Peruvian wealth because in all of their econometric models, latitude was entered together with the other geographic variables (longitude, altitude, soil slope, soil depth, igneous rock, metamorphic rock, temperature).
Analyses of data from Peruvian national samples collected at different points in time have revealed that women's control of economic decisions within the household (Leon, 2011 b) or, more generally, women's domestic power (Leon, 2012a), increase along meridionality. Average standard power scores increased from northern to central to southern Peru in all of Brack's (1983) major ecological regions, even though 15 sociodemographic variables were held constant; the linear trend was especially strong in the Yunga (.012, 238, 517 means) and Amazon (-.043, 108, 525 means; Leon 2012a).
Given their greater domestic power along meridionality, southern Peruvian women are probably more effective at contributing to family wealth, whereas their northern counterparts, kept within the limits of reproduction and child care, are less effective.
Thirdly, the link observed between latitude and women's domestic power in Peru (Leon, 2011 b, 2012a) could account for the expected latitude- wealth and latitude-education relationships and, thus, help to understand the economic impacts of meridionality.
More importantly, in his integration of Italian political and cultural history within a global context, Gramsci's work, especially through Pasolini, facilitates the drawing of numerous connections between class inequality and social immobility, but also racial, ethnic, geographic, linguistic factors, as well as questions of gender and sexuality that, by now, have become virtually inseparable from issues pertaining to Italian and global meridionality
, especially as articulated by thinkers such as Franco Cassano (1996) and Giuseppe Goffredo (2000), in whose work Pasolini remains a unavoidable point of reference.
Variations at decadal to centennial time scales in major circulation features such as ENSO activity and the meridionality
of regional air flow at high latitudes, as well as changes in the degree of coupling of these features, are important influences on climate and fire regimes of northern Patagonia.