Some make sound as in necklaces of incised pelican bone flutes played at puberty ceremonies for Kuna girls of Panama, the conch shell as a signaling device, and the ocarina flutes of Meso-America
, sometimes connecting with other worldly spirits.
Extra-European examples, drawn from the Far East, South Asia and Meso-America
, are intriguing and contribute to what is now, after all, a globalized if not quite a global history.
Studies of the last 30 years in the fields of archaeology, medical archaeology, and ichonography have demonstrated that achondroplasic individuals were considered special beings in pre-Colombian societies of Meso-America
and South America, where they fulfilled a great many functions in everyday life, as well as in different rites associated with the divinities.
Focusing on the polished stone civilizations of Meso-America
and the metallurgical civilizations of South America, he sketches possible scenarios of contact between more technologically sophisticated Asian migrants and less sophisticated indigenous groups in Meso and South America.
The Hohokam and Meso-America
, in The Hohokam Millennium.
Chapter topics include the Gupta Empire, the Tang and Song Dynasties, Medieval Europe, Greece and Rome, Meso-America
, and the rise of Islam and the Abbasid Caliphate.
Chapter 18 focuses on the use of a piece of cloth wrapped around human excrement (muneca, a doll in Spanish) as a fermentation accelerator in the process of making pulque, a traditional drink of the highlands of Meso-America
Variously attributed to the Maya, Aztec, or Mixtec cultures of ancient Meso-America
, crystal skulls vary from our plum-sized one shown here to a larger-than-life-size skull at the Smithsonian that weighs a whopping 31 pounds (14 kg).
But several large spawning aggregations of this species still exist in the western part of its range near Belize, in the Meso-America
Barrier Reef System.
edu/projects/ais/nae provides illustrations, documents, and photos relating to Indians, from Meso-America
In fact, there were similarities between the cultures of Nubia and West Africa, right down to the smaller-scaled hard brick clay burial pyramids built for West African kings at Kukia in pre-Islamic Ancient Ghana and their counterparts in Nubia, Egypt and Meso-America
Inspired by the controversial claims of Ivan Van Sertima's They Came Before Columbus, which cites the facial features of the colossal stone heads of Olmec as evidence that this pre-Mayan civilization was African in origin, the production set the action in ancient Meso-America