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The presence of methemoglobin in the blood.
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Congenital methaemoglobinaemia is a rare condition and, especially when this is associated with a difficult airway, the difficulty in interpreting pulse oximetry makes anaesthesia a challenge.
Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has warned parents about adverse effects of oral teething medications which contain benzocaine.1 It has been stated that benzocaine can cause an atypical, but grave, side effect in children of less than 2 years of age, known as Methaemoglobinaemia.1,3 Symptoms usually appear after the first dose or after several uses of this oral agent.
Inverse relationship between age - dependent erythrocyte activity of methaemoglobin reductase and prilocaine-induced methaemoglobinaemia during infancy.
Methaemoglobinaemia is a condition characterised by increased quantities of haemoglobin in which the iron of haeme is oxidised to Ferric form.
In infants it can cause methaemoglobinaemia, or blue-baby syndrome, which can be fatal.
Jones, "Severe acute haemolytic anaemia associated with severe methaemoglobinaemia in a G6PD-deficient man," BMJ Case Reports, 2018.
Methylene blue is a standard photoacoustic dye, and it is a low-cost drug with lower toxicity that has been useful in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery and in clinical treatment of septic shock, methaemoglobinaemia, and Alzheimer's [5-8].
In humans, high contents of nitrate can cause methaemoglobinaemia, as a consequence of the reaction of nitrite with haemoglobin in the red blood cells to form methaemoglobin, which binds oxygen tightly and does not release it, thus blocking oxygen transport.
Chan, "Vegetable-borne nitrate and nitrite and the risk of methaemoglobinaemia," Toxicology Letters, vol.
[7.] Harrison M.: Toxic methaemoglobinaemia: A case of nitrobenzene and aniline poisoning treated by exchange transfusion.
Excessive nitrate/nitrite exposure of infants up to approximately 3-6 months of age represents a risk factor for methaemoglobinaemia. Nitrite can react with nitrosatable compounds, primarily secondary amines, in the body to form N-nitroso compounds.
methaemoglobinaemia include: adults with a hereditary predisposition,