Classicists with a variety of specialties look at the mutuality of theological and philosophical methods and interests in the two halves of the former Roman Empire during its final period, between the reconquest of Constantinople in 1261 by Michael VIII
Palaiologis, to the aftermath of the city's fall to the Ottomans in 1453.
Emperor Michael VIII
, Palaiologos, was very fortunate to be the first of his dynasty to rule the Byzantine empire from Constantinople, its traditional capital.
The Second Council of Lyon (1272-1274) was presided over by Pope Gregory X and was convened to act on a papal call for another crusade to recapture the Holy Land and a pledge by the new Byzantine Emperor Michael VIII
Palaiologos to reunite the Eastern Church with the West.
On another note, intriguingly, the author calls Michael VIII
Angelov also commends the historian George Pachymeres for his accurate criticism of corruption under Michael VIII
The first council involved Emperor Michael VIII
of Constantinople, who in 1261 captured the city back from the Latins who had taken it over in 1204 during the Fourth Crusade.
The Palaeologan restoration under Michael VIII
revealed the continuing weakness of the Empire.
In the summer of 1261, an army sent by the Byzantine general, the emperor Michael VIII
Palaiologos, at last defeated the Franks--more or less by accident, but that's another matter.