For instance, the sections on the reconstmction of Old Chinese and Middle Chinese are for the most part easy to follow and provide a minimally coherent outline of the essentials.
On the same page, we also find a disconcerting passage with a series of problems, one with agreement in number and then one in referent: "It is reasonable to say that most modern Chinese dialects can be regarded as a descendant of Middle Chinese, although some features of certain dialects, such as the Min dialects, are actually older than Middle Chinese.
Koguryo, the Language of Japan's Continental Relatives: An Introduction to the Historical-comparative Study of the Japanese-Koguryoic Languages with a Preliminary Description of Archaic Northeastern Middle Chinese
The difference in pronunciation between [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'north', Middle Chinese *pok, and [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'the back', Middle Chinese, *pojH, is due to morphology: both words are based on an Old Chinese verb root *[.
Moreover, reconstructing an *n as the root initial of [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] solves an additional problem: one character in which [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] occurs as phonetic, [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'to smile', has initial sy- in Middle Chinese; but while Middle Chinese sy- never derives from Old Chinese s-, it is the regular outcome of Old Chinese [.
He retains yod for Middle Chinese
but has not ventured to publish an account of how his supposed Old Chinese short vowels could have spontaneously diphthongized in this way.
he goes on to complain of a lack of "vollkommene Paronomasie" in these, his own incorrect forms; and then shifts the discussion to Pulleyblank's Middle Chinese
A good example of a Han transcription that shows both Old Chinese *r > Middle Chinese
*1 and Modern Chinese l-, corresponding to foreign -r-, and Old Chinese *1 > Middle Chinese
*j- corresponding to foreign -/- is the name Wuyishanli EMC jik sein lia, long accepted as equivalent to the name Alexandria (not the great metropolis in Egypt but one of the other cities by this name founded by Alexander in present Afghanistan).
His phonetic interpretation of this framework is, however, based on his guesses as to how foreign sounds in languages as dead as Middle Chinese
, even though written in alphabetic scripts, would have sounded to a Chinese ear, or vice versa, without any clearly articulated theory as to the internal organization of the Chinese phonological system at the relevant time and place.
In the Fujian dialects, Jerry Norman (1976) discovered that some features of the language did not go back to Middle Chinese
cognates and postulated a substratum language from the Austroasiatic family.
What he neglects to mention is that even at that time I had already also rejected Karlgren's yod for the reconstruction of either Early Middle Chinese
(EMC) of the Qieyun or late Middle Chinese
(LMC) of the rhyme tables, with abundant arguments and much marshalling of material evidence (1970, 1970-71, 1984).
3) The standard Cantonese reading of dao is sixth tone, indicating a Middle Chinese
departing tone: it appears that the Middle Chinese
reading dau/ for "road" was abandoned and subsumed under dau\.