Middle Chinese

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Middle Chinese

The Chinese language as used in the Tang dynasty (618-907), whose pronunciation is known from systematic descriptions in dictionaries and scholarly works from the Tang, Song, and later dynasties, and from the comparison of modern varieties of Chinese. Middle Chinese is the source of loanwords in Korean and Vietnamese and the largest group of Chinese loanwords in Japanese.
American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Copyright © 2016 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.

Mid′dle Chinese′

the Chinese language of the 7th and 8th centuries A.D. Abbr.: MChin
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References in periodicals archive ?
In fact, Southern and Northern Dynasties are treated as the center of Middle Chinese. Figure 2 shows that the Middle Ages are the critical transition period of polysyllablization.
In addition to the poem, the game also made use of a four-syllable sequence representing the tones of Middle Chinese.
On the same page, we also find a disconcerting passage with a series of problems, one with agreement in number and then one in referent: "It is reasonable to say that most modern Chinese dialects can be regarded as a descendant of Middle Chinese, although some features of certain dialects, such as the Min dialects, are actually older than Middle Chinese." Dialects are "a descendant"?
Koguryo, the Language of Japan's Continental Relatives: An Introduction to the Historical-comparative Study of the Japanese-Koguryoic Languages with a Preliminary Description of Archaic Northeastern Middle Chinese. Leiden: Brill.
The difference in pronunciation between [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'north', Middle Chinese *pok, and [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 'the back', Middle Chinese, *pojH, is due to morphology: both words are based on an Old Chinese verb root *[.sup.a]pik 'to turn the back', evolving regularly to Middle Chinese *pok 'north' (the direction one turns the back on) on the one hand, and to a body-part noun derived by means of the nominalizing-s suffix *[.sup.a]pik-s, to Middle Chinese *pojH 'the back' on the other hand.
He retains yod for Middle Chinese but has not ventured to publish an account of how his supposed Old Chinese short vowels could have spontaneously diphthongized in this way.
With careful argument, Branner rejects the idea that "Middle Chinese" as represented in the Chiehyunn is the immediate ancestor of the Chinese dialects.
Xingjun categorized the single character entries according to 242 classifiers and organized the dictionary overall into four parts by tone, one chapter each for the Middle Chinese ping [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] shang [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] qu [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] and ru [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODU CIBLE IN ASCII] tones.
In Middle Chinese it hardened to *d- in what I call Type A syllables (those without medial yod in Karlgren's system) and palatalized to *j- in Type B syllables (those with yod in Karlgren's system).
To add to the irony in the present context, in his Old Chinese reconstruction Li, who is spared the opprobrious label "Karlgrenian" by my two critics, adopted Karlgren's Middle Chinese reconstruction essentially unchanged, brushing aside without discussion criticisms and modifications that had been proposed not only by myself but by scholars such as Maspero, Arisaka, Lu Zhiwei, Nagel, and others.

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