An enormous amount of detailed work has gone into the preparation of this pair of texts, and I find the conjunction of the Middle French
with the Middle English is an aid in reading both.
(4.) Although both manuscripts are based on a Middle French
exemplar, the English translations represent two distinct translations of two separate French redactions.
Of thirteen extant manuscripts containing versions of this passage about Mary, the Middle French
uses the word meulequin, three Middle English manuscripts faithfully translate it as "kerchief," and the Latin back-translation made from Middle English gives vaguely "in ornatu capitis mulieris" [on a decoration for a woman's head].
With sense 1 perhaps compare Anglo-Norman and Middle French
randoner, randuner, etc., 'to move swiftly' (al 174 in Old French; French randonner, now apparently only in senses '(of an animal in hunting) to make a circuit around the area where it has been released' (1875), 'to go for a hike' (1896); < randon RANDOM n.).
Working from a close reading of the Middle French
version of the work in Chantilly, Kocher describes the various levels of allegory in the work, frequently quoting passages in the original and providing English translation for each.
One long poem, one only longish, and a handful of ballades, written in Middle French
The word "innovate" can be traced back to the 1400s, where it originated from the Middle French
word "innovacyon" meaning "renewal" or "new way of doing things." Typically, innovation is considered an activity of technology, engineering, and other specialized, scientifically based fields that employ approaches and strategies to spark connectivity, improve design, and translate ideas into tangible realities~
It is, however, unfortunate that the publisher could not be persuaded to display the Latin text opposite Foulechat's Middle French
version rather than opposite its modern translation: this would have led to some rationalizing of the footnotes.
Innovation is derived from the Middle French
word innover meaning "renewal" or a "new way of doing things." Similarly, in Latin, innovation comes from the term innovare, which is to change into something new; to alter; to renew (American Heritage Dictionary, 2000, p.
She is familiar with Arabic, German, French (including middle French
), botany, archaeology, history and reads Latin, especially Virgil, for pleasure.
In particular he has made use of the new translation of the Middle French
epic poem, History of William Marshall, published by the Anglo-Norman Text Society.
A large part of the interest of this collection is, again, in the words themselves: Blanchard includes a glossary and an index of names, and he concludes his introduction with a few, very suggestive, notes on the evolution of middle French
. It is hard to imagine using this text in an undergraduate literature course, the way one might the TLF Pantagruel, but this record of personal disappointments and desperate attempts to recover lost payments mixed with sudden suspicions and obsequious waiting in antechambers would certainly be useful in a graduate offering on what Blanchard calls "l'histoire totale."