In this paper the following, widely accepted periodization of the Irish language will be used: Old Irish (8th and 9th centuries with a more or less fixed literary language); Middle Irish
(10th-12th centuries--with no fixed standard and the texts displaying great variation)--Old and Middle Irish
are often referred to together as Early Irish (8th-12th centuries); Early Modern Irish (13th-mid-17th centuries)--the official literary language of this period is called Classical Modern Irish; Modern Irish (since the mid-17th century on).
The Irish word contained a diphthong, by the Middle Irish
period, already moving toward resolution as a pure vowel [i].
I have considered this review in some detail because of its relevance to the opinions expressed by O Floinn in the introduction to Athbheo, his first collection of translations from Old and Middle Irish
The later Middle Irish
literature written in Gaelic is generally less significant than that of the older periods; unlike the earlier literature, the bulk of which is anonymous, the later medieval literature was written by known poets, several of whom are worthy of mention.
That a British civil servant in India chose to outline his views on the Land War in the evocative terminology of Middle Irish
should surely impress on readers that Stokes is a far more interesting subject than the arid scholar imagined by previous commentators or even the "controversialist" described elsewhere by Sean O Luing.
This is the well-attested Old and Middle Irish
ruirthech, translated as 'strong-running, impetuous'.
leprechaun or leprecaun leprehaunIrish leipreachan, lucharachan puny creature, dwarf, elf, from Middle Irish
luchrapan, lupraccan, from Old Irish luchorpan, from lu-small + corp body (from Latin corpus) + -an,diminutive suffix
The other evidence is Middle Irish
taesc 'jet, spurt, flow (of blood, etc.
based on a single ninth-century middle Irish
i followed by a non-palatal consonant often became io and (in Ulster and elsewhere) iu, as in immaire>Modern Irish iomaire, iumaire `ridge', ticfa>tiocfaidh, tiucfaidh `will come'; yet Scottish Gaelic can be shown to have made no change.
Her book is packed with information on early Irish history and culture and on the formal properties of old and middle Irish
language and literature.
Tromchery has not, it seems, been explained as a loan from Irish tromchroi < Middle Irish
tromchride, |liver' (literally |heavy heart').