In this paper the following, widely accepted periodization of the Irish language will be used: Old Irish (8th and 9th centuries with a more or less fixed literary language); Middle Irish
(10th-12th centuries--with no fixed standard and the texts displaying great variation)--Old and Middle Irish
are often referred to together as Early Irish (8th-12th centuries); Early Modern Irish (13th-mid-17th centuries)--the official literary language of this period is called Classical Modern Irish; Modern Irish (since the mid-17th century on).
The Irish word contained a diphthong, by the Middle Irish
period, already moving toward resolution as a pure vowel [i].
Tomas O Floinn published two collections of Modern Irish translations from Old and Middle Irish
: Athbheo (Alive Again or Revival) (4) in 1955 and Athdhanta (Re-poems) in 1969.
That a British civil servant in India chose to outline his views on the Land War in the evocative terminology of Middle Irish
should surely impress on readers that Stokes is a far more interesting subject than the arid scholar imagined by previous commentators or even the "controversialist" described elsewhere by Sean O Luing.
A Middle Irish
homily tells of a demon that St Bartholomew met in India, with a black face and hair down to his heels (trilis conice a shalu fhair).
Breeze, 'Celtic Etymologies for Middle English Hurl "Rush, Thrust" and Fisk "Hasten"', Leeds Studies in English, xxiv (1993), 123-32; 'A Brittonic Etymology for Luche "Throw" in Patience 230', SELIM, iii (1993), 150-3; 'Middle Irish
Dordan "Buzz, Roar"; Northern English Dirdura "Uproar, Din'", Eriu, xlv (1994).
leprechaun or leprecaun leprehaunIrish leipreachan, lucharachan puny creature, dwarf, elf, from Middle Irish
luchrapan, lupraccan, from Old Irish luchorpan, from lu-small + corp body (from Latin corpus) + -an,diminutive suffix
These papers traverse a wide geography, dealing with issues of relationships, linkages, literacies, and the social context of interactions with Latin of a smorgasbord of antique and medieval languages, including Middle Welsh, Greek, Old Swedish, and related Scandinavian languages, Old and Middle Irish
, Old English, a number of Romance languages (such as Castilian, Leonese, Old and Middle French, Gaulish Latin), and Old High German.
This is the well-attested Old and Middle Irish
ruirthech, translated as 'strong-running, impetuous'.
based on a single ninth-century middle Irish
fragment?); all of this occupying the same chapter as thirteen pages of interviews simply presented, uninterpreted by the critic who nonetheless clearly wants us to sea something in that material.
i followed by a non-palatal consonant often became io and (in Ulster and elsewhere) iu, as in immaire>Modern Irish iomaire, iumaire `ridge', ticfa>tiocfaidh, tiucfaidh `will come'; yet Scottish Gaelic can be shown to have made no change.(12) Hence we have Modern Irish briosc, as opposed to Scottish Gaelic brisg.
O'Rahilly dismissed the forms Venicones (with short o), and Venicones, Venicomes, and Vernicomes (with long o), as corruptions of Verturiones, which gives Middle Irish
Fortrenn, referring to the region west of Stirling and Perth (O'Rahilly 1946:382 n.2).