The major components of PM are sulfate, nitrates, ammonia, sodium chloride, black carbon, mineral dust
, and water.
The focus laid on mineral dust
emitted from salty pans and ephemeral riverbeds in northern Namibia, the advection of biomass-burning aerosol plumes from Angola subsequently transported over the Atlantic Ocean, and aerosols in the marine boundary layer at the ocean-atmosphere interface.
MICA is a naturally-occurring mineral dust
which has been used in make-up foundations, as filler in cement and as insulation material in electric cables.
(3) Respiratory diseases caused by exposure to mineral dust
persist in both developed and developing countries despite substantial knowledge about means of their prevention.
Researchers at Harvard University hope this year to use a high-altitude balloon to release about a kilogram (2.2 pounds) of sun-dimming mineral dust
into the stratosphere above the U.S.
Sokolik, "Importance of adsorption for CCN activity and hygroscopic properties of mineral dust
aerosol," Geophysical Research Letters, vol.
We have not located any health-based generic PM limits using real-time count concentration values (certain workplace mineral dust
standards require collection with an impinger, followed by microscopic counts).
(4) Indeed, this concept is applicable to other mineral dust-induced lung disease, in which it has been recommended that the term "mineral dust
airways disease" be used.
The International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has estimated that most of the atmospheric particles worldwide are emitted by natural sources, with mineral dust
from arid regions being the second after marine aerosol (IPCC 2007).
A recent estimate suggested that about 40 percent of the so-called aerosols released into the air every year is made up of mineral dust
. Some of it comes from human activity, such as ploughing or grazing arid land or diverting rivers leading to the drying-out of water bodies such as the Aral Sea in Central Asia.
According to research, sandstorms as a result are a major source of mineral dust
, which ensure a natural supply of nutrients for phytoplankton, the basic food on which marine life depends.