Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary, published 1913 by G. & C. Merriam Co.
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We expected such a relationship, given that personal values often serve as a standard or criterion for influencing evaluations of, or choices about, persons, ideas, and objects (Blackwell, Miniard, & Engel, 2001).
Questions or comments about this article may be directed to Jody L Miniard, DNPACNP-BC, at
The effectiveness of comparative advertisements has been thoroughly debated in advertising research from few decades and different researchers have studied its effectiveness in different ways (Pechmann and Ratneshwar, 1991; Droge and Darmon, 1987; Rose et al., 1993, and Miniard et al., 1993).
(Engel, Blackwell, and Miniard, 1990) specified three variables impact employees' behavior towards planning for retirement: environment, individual, and psychology.
Research in marketing has shown that advertising increases brand preference and trust in the firm, which in turn influences consumers' satisfaction with the brand (San Martin and Camarero 2005; Li and Miniard 2006).
CB is regarded as a relatively new field of study with no historical body of research of its own (Engel, Blackwell & Miniard, 2001; Schiffman & Kanuk, 2010).
Blackwell, Miniard and Engel (2005) point out that the purchase decision process can be classified into three groups, according to the type of involvement in the decision and the nature of the problem in which it is involved: i) Extended problem solving (EPS), when there is detail, rigor and high involvement by the consumer; ii) limited problem solving (LPS), when the consumer does not have time or motivation to start an EPS, opting for simple paths to the final decision as a choice based on price or brand and, consequently, has little involvement in the process and; iii) intermediate problem solving (IPS) when the consumer opts for an intermediate path between the extremes of the continuum of the decision process.
O comportamento do consumidor e um dos temas mais recorrentes na area de marketing, e tem como foco entender o processo decisorio dos individuos em relacao a produtos, servicos e experiencias (Blackwell, Miniard & Engel, 2011).
Research suggests that motivations to engage in WOM include dissonance reduction (Engel, Blackwell, & Miniard, 1993; Kraft & Martin, 2001).
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