If the Middle Assyrian adaptation of Babylonian curricular texts took place under the impetus of the state, and if this process can be observed rather closely, the same is not true for most of the Mesopotamian "periphery." Veldhuis asserts confidently, without documentation, that "both Ugarit and Emar had received cuneiform literacy from their Mitannian
Idrimi inscription provided a useful source that helps document historic events, the geographical borders and political relationships prevailed between kingdoms in northern Syria at that time, said al-Sayyed, adding that it also enabled understand the nature and reasons of political and military conflict between the Mitannian
kingdom and the Hittite Empire.
The Akkadian texts include material from the ancient Assyrian, Babylonian, Hittites, Ugaritic, Eblite, and Mitannian
During the Amarna period, in fact, proto-national identity became the norm systemwide, not only in Kassite Babylonia.(71) The period began when the Egyptians, out of protonationalist pride, revolted against the rule of the Hyksos, "despised Asiatic barbarians," and established an empire in Canaan and Syria.(72) In northern Syria, they met the Mitannian
empire, which was built around ethnic Hurrians.(73) The Assyrians, divided between Mitanni and Kassite Babylonia, reacted by developing for the first time a concept of "the Land of Assur" -- that is, Assyria -- rallying together to assert their independence from both rival empires.(74) Similarly, the Hittites, harking back in one text to "ancient times [when] the Land of Hatti [the Hittite country] ...
In the latter city they were accused of attempting to kill their Hurrian (i.e., Mitannian
) king" (pp.
Ten Cate, the city of Kadesh--according to Peter Brand (14) the all-present thorn in the side of the Pharaohs--had gone back to Mitannian
control before the onset of Akhenaton's reign.
In the fourteenth century B.C., when Amenhotep III married the daughter of the Mitannian
king, she was allowed to use the title "Mistress of Egypt" and was acknowledged as a primary wife, albeit not the consort.
, and Middle Assyrian sources that have helped Podany to anchor Hana chronology.
Here are a few examples: Matthews mentions "the Mitannian
principalities further to the east of the Tigris" (pp.
plus Orientalia: A Catalogue of Egyptian, Mesopotamian, Mitannian
, Syro-Palestinian, Cypriot and Asia Minor Objects from the Bronze Age Aegean.