Polanco -- Lazo and Bolas -- Partridges -- Absence of Trees -- Deer -- Capybara, or River Hog -- Tucutuco -- Molothrus, cuckoo-like habits -- Tyrant- flycatcher -- Mocking-bird -- Carrion Hawks -- Tubes formed by Lightning -- House struck.
There are several species of a family allied in structure and manners to our Starling: one of these (Molothrus niger) is remarkable from its habits.
Predation accounted for 90% of failed nests while Brown-headed Cowbirds (Molothrus
ater) accounted for only 395 of nest failures.
Additionally, expansion of agriculture and logging into Michigan brought with it brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus
ater), "nest parasites" that lay eggs in the nests of unsuspecting host birds who then go on to raise the cowbird chicks as their own.
Six nests were parasitized with a single brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus
ater) egg, and all parasitized nests occurred in Gambel oak-dominated woodland.
In previous studies, numerous avian species like European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), house sparrows (Passer domesticus), feral pigeons (Columba livia), red- winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), brown headed cowbirds (Molothrus
ater), American kestrels (Falco sparverius), Canada geese (Branta canadensis), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), cedar waxwings (Bomby cillacedrorum) and yellow-headed blackbirds (Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus) also showed the similar results and suppress the depredations when seeds treated with anthraquinone and methylanthranilate were provided to the birds (Cummings et al., 1998).
Narrow buffer zones increase the amount of edge habitat, which often increases egg parasitism, especially by species such as Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus
ater; Gates & Giffen 1991; Bohning-Gaese et al.
A similar effect has been observed with the Brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus
Sainz-Borgo C (2015) Reporte de parasitismo de Molothrus
bonariensis sobre Cyanocorax yncas en Venezuela.
The genus of this bird, Molothrus
ater--as well as the bronze-headed variant Molothrus
aeneus--comes from Molothrus
, the Greek work meaning vagabond or parasite.