monad

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mo·nad

 (mō′năd′)
n.
1. Philosophy An indivisible, impenetrable unit of substance viewed as the basic constituent element of physical reality in the metaphysics of Leibniz.
2. Biology A single-celled microorganism, especially a flagellate protozoan formerly classified in the taxonomic group Monadina.

[Latin monas, monad-, unit, from Greek, from monos, single; see men- in Indo-European roots.]

mo·nad′ic (mə-năd′ĭk), mo·nad′i·cal adj.
mo·nad′i·cal·ly adv.
mo′nad·ism n.
American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Copyright © 2016 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.

monad

(ˈmɒnæd; ˈməʊ-)
npl -ads or -ades (-əˌdiːz)
1. (Philosophy) philosophy
a. any fundamental singular metaphysical entity, esp if autonomous
b. (in the metaphysics of Leibnitz) a simple indestructible nonspatial element regarded as the unit of which reality consists
c. (in the pantheistic philosophy of Giordano Bruno) a fundamental metaphysical unit that is spatially extended and psychically aware
2. (Biology) a single-celled organism, esp a flagellate protozoan
3. (Chemistry) an atom, ion, or radical with a valency of one
Also called (for senses 1, 2): monas
[C17: from Late Latin monas, from Greek: unit, from monos alone]
moˈnadical adj
moˈnadically adv
Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged, 12th Edition 2014 © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2003, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2014

mon•ad

(ˈmɒn æd, ˈmoʊ næd)

n.
1. a flagellated protozoan, esp. of the genus Monas.
2. an element, atom, or group having a valence of one.
3. Philos. an indivisible metaphysical entity, esp. one having an autonomous life.
4. a single unit or entity.
[1605–15; < Late Latin monad- (s. of monas) < Greek (s. of monás): unity. See mon-, -ad1]
mo•nad•ic (məˈnæd ɪk) mo•nad′i•cal, mo•nad′al, adj.
Random House Kernerman Webster's College Dictionary, © 2010 K Dictionaries Ltd. Copyright 2005, 1997, 1991 by Random House, Inc. All rights reserved.

monad

any simple, single-cell organism. — monadic, monadical, monadal, adj.
See also: Cells
-Ologies & -Isms. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

monad

Spritual individuality that is reincarnated.
Dictionary of Unfamiliar Words by Diagram Group Copyright © 2008 by Diagram Visual Information Limited
ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend:
Noun1.monad - (chemistry) an atom having a valence of onemonad - (chemistry) an atom having a valence of one
chemical science, chemistry - the science of matter; the branch of the natural sciences dealing with the composition of substances and their properties and reactions
atom - (physics and chemistry) the smallest component of an element having the chemical properties of the element
2.monad - a singular metaphysical entity from which material properties are said to derivemonad - a singular metaphysical entity from which material properties are said to derive
1, ace, one, single, unity, I - the smallest whole number or a numeral representing this number; "he has the one but will need a two and three to go with it"; "they had lunch at one"
3.monad - (biology) a single-celled microorganism (especially a flagellate protozoan)
microorganism, micro-organism - any organism of microscopic size
biological science, biology - the science that studies living organisms
Based on WordNet 3.0, Farlex clipart collection. © 2003-2012 Princeton University, Farlex Inc.
Translations

monad

[ˈmɒnæd] Nmónada f
Collins Spanish Dictionary - Complete and Unabridged 8th Edition 2005 © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1971, 1988 © HarperCollins Publishers 1992, 1993, 1996, 1997, 2000, 2003, 2005

monad

n
(Philos) → Monade f
(Biol: dated) → Einzeller m
(Chem) → einwertiges Element or Atom or Radikal
Collins German Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged 7th Edition 2005. © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1980 © HarperCollins Publishers 1991, 1997, 1999, 2004, 2005, 2007

monad

[ˈmɒnæd] n (Chem, Philosophy) → monade f
Collins Italian Dictionary 1st Edition © HarperCollins Publishers 1995
References in classic literature ?
Molecule .) According to Leibnitz, as nearly as he seems willing to be understood, the monad has body without bulk, and mind without manifestation -- Leibnitz knows him by the innate power of considering.
Genius watches the monad through all his masks as he performs the metempsychosis of nature.
The epistemic monads of narrators and protagonists are defined by their historical background, and in turn these monads are responsible for the shape of a fictional world.
As a refutation to Spinoza's claim that there was only one substance, God, Leibniz declared that the world was made up of an infinity of self-contained entities that he called monads, existing in a pre-established harmony.
Its biggest deviation from Haskell is in the use of uniqueness types for input as opposed to monads.
The final surprise I'll mention is that Leibniz's system of doing physics, which is based on fundamental units called monads, has got a few things in common with the modern notion of computational physics, or "it from bit." Furthermore, Leibniz's rejection of the concept of absolute space and time, which for a long time seemed a little bit loony to people, enjoyed a revival beginning with Ernst Mach.
The order of the essays is somewhat puzzling, however, for both logically and chronologically the topic that provides the essential background is that treated in the fifth essay by Claude Troisfontaines--Blondel's understanding of Leibniz's idea of vinculum substantiale, the "substantial bond." The idea of a vinculum substantiale appears in some of Leibniz's correspondence as a tentative answer to the question of how there could be a composite substance, in which all the monads would not be merely gathered together as an aggregate under a dominant monad but truly united as a substance.
Cover and O'Leary-Hawthorne bolster Mates's account by (among other things) stressing that monads "contain" features of other monads only objectively or representationally, and not formally.
In contrast, Leibnitz maintained that God had established a harmonious universe completely filled by inherently active entities called monads. Although they operated independently, and no longer needed God's direct control, Leibnitz's monads had been in a sense pre-programmed so that they worked together to fulfil His plans.
One can find self-preservation, for example, in Leibniz's monads, compelled to interrelate yet ontologically distinct and tending to preserve this distinctness; and one can find self-preservation in Hobbes' human beings, who are led to the social contract defensively -- all wish selfishly and "arelationally" to preserve themselves, but the best way to do this is by existing in relation to one another, in society.
We should also remember that "serialism as a hypothesis," understood as "reconciliation of opposites"--as the Austrian composer Karlheinz Essl writes in his clever essay (Essl 1989)--finds its way to Leibniz's theory of monads. So monadology is also my parallel.