(The groupers are mostly monandric
protogynous hermaphrodites, that is, they mature only as female and have the ability to change sex after sexual maturity)
protogyny occurs when males develop only from females (secondary males) through a transitional phase, whereas diandric protogyny involves 2 pathways for male development: directly from juveniles (primary males) or through sex change from mature females (Reinboth, 1967).
No differences in the size structure were noted when comparing the specimens used in this study with specimens of Epinephelus fuscoguttatus, also a monandric protogynous hermaphrodite species, collected from Australia's Great Barrier Reef .
The observed size distribution structure, with all small size specimens being female and the majority of large specimens being male, confirms that Epinephelus malabaricus is a monandric protogynous hermaphrodite species [11,13,42].
-- California Sheephead, Semicossyphus pulcher, is a monandric protogynous hermaphrodite and a commercially and recreationally valuable labrid.
As monandric, protogynous hermaphrodites, California Sheephead can transition from a reproductively functional female to a functional male during the course of a lifespan in response to social factors (Warner 1975; Adreani et al.
Finally, they are monandric
, protogynous hermaphrodites (all fish begin life as female and can eventually change sex to male) (McBride and Johnson, 2007) that form harems, with a single male controlling 2-15 females (Davis, 1976; Colin, 1982; Claro et al., 1989).
California sheephead are monandric
, protogynous hermaphrodites that are targeted by anglers, spearfishermen and the recently developed live fishery to supply Asian seafood markets (Adreani et al.
Some grouper species, moreover, have only one type of male, derived from sex-changed adult females (these species are termed "monandric
"), whereas other species have an additional male type ("diandric") that is directly derived from the juvenile phase (Sadovy de Mitcheson and Liu, 2008).
gouldii is monandric
, i.e., all males are derived from mature females (Sadovy de Mitcheson and Liu, 2008), they do raise the strong possibility that this is the case for this labrid.
Gonadal structure and population structure characteristics for Campeche Bank black grouper were consistent with the characteristics of monandric
protogynous hermaphrodism for a serranid fish.
Sex ratios and length and age data were consistent with monandric