And yet, since Justin does not impute these views--erroneous, in his opinion--to either Trypho or his teachers (or to any of their coreligionists, for that matter), we are left wondering whether "they" refers to Jews or, as more scholars are inclined to think, to Christians of a Monarchian
Christians defined themselves as binitarians, deeming anyone who did not subscribe to such a theology a "Monarchian
" or even a "Jew." Boyarin demonstrates that previous to these centuries the belief in a complex godhead was not a mark through which Jesus-followers were distinguished from those Jews who did not follow him.
It used Christian theology in a "conjunctive" fashion to affirm the powers-that-be by analogy, asserting, as, for instance did Kings James I and VI, "no bishop, no king." The institution of monarchy was legitimated by the monarchical episcopate that, no doubt, made equal appeal to a monarchian
vision of God or Christ.
As a Monarchian
theologian, Callistus was looking for the ultimate principle in the godhead from which all lesser beings or persons were derived just as Elagabus could find that principle in the cult of Sol Invictus.
Despite his monarchian
stress the supremacy of God the Father, he did not consider the merits of other monotheistic traditions such as Judaism and Islam - his spirit of inclusiveness stopped short of non-Christian religions and atheists.
9 and the Monarchian
Prologue to John are not beholden directly to Papias, but only to Irenaeus and some other source (we know that Jerome knew Victorinus' commentary), the Prologue probably being dependent upon Jerome.
Three successive Popes (Victor and his successors) were bewildered and harassed by the contention: each took refuge in a different line of policy: all were Monarchian
controversy was brought to an abrupt conclusion by the persecution of Maximinian.(14)
The word homoousios, at its first appearance in the middle of the third century, was therefore clearly connected with the theology of a Sabellian or monarchian
It is this basic monarchian
thesis that there can be only one God, which most concerns Callistus.
But given his monarchian
conception of God, less than God is not God at all.
Accordingly, the extraordinary affinities between the Wurzburg tractates and the Monarchian
Prologues preserved in early manuscripts of the Vulgate form no part of her story.
Not only is the identification of the statue with Hippolytus doubtful, but three of the most significant works attributed to Hippolytus are not found in the statue's list of works: the Refutation of the Heresies, the Contra Noetum (written against a Monarchian
Patripassionist from Asia Minor), and the Commentary on Daniel.