The planktonic order Globigerinida and the benthic orders Robertinida and Spirillinida, as well as the paraphyletic assemblage of monothalamous (single-chambered) taxa are represented by relatively few species (Fig.
Eight of these environmental clades related to early, monothalamous lineages (ENFOR1 to ENFOR8) have been identified in the deep Southern Ocean sediment (Pawlowski et al.
In particular, we brought compelling evidence that deep-sea foraminiferal communities are dominated by early-evolved monothalamous lineages.
According to the qPCR assays, the number of rDNA copies in foraminifera varies between 40,000 in monothalamous genus Allogromia and 5,000-10,000 in rotaliid genera Bolivina and Rosalina (Weber and Pawlowski, 2013).
Ultra-deep sequencing of foraminiferal microbarcodes unveils hidden richness of early monothalamous lineages in deep-sea sediments.