According to Canon 95 of the Quinisext Ecumenical Council, Arians, Macedonians, Novatians (Cathari), Aristeri, Tetradites, and Apollinarians ought to be received on their presentation of certificates of faith and on their anathematizing every heresy by the anointing of the holy chrism, as opposed to Paulianists, Eunomeans, Montanists
, and Sabellians, who ought to be rebaptized, while Manichoeans, Valentinians, Marcionites, Nestorians, Eutychians, Dioscorus, Severus, and all of similar heresies ought to give certificates of faith and anathematize each his own heresy in order to participate in the eucharist.
Take the Montanists
, for example, an early Christian sect that used tattoos to mark themselves as God's slaves.
(2) Pneumatological controversy dates back to older initiatives such as the Montanists
and the Benguin sisters.
To do this, he takes account of recent advances in understanding Polycarp, Papias, the Marcionites, Montanists
, Valentinians, and second-century Rome.
The Christianity to which Ferngren refers is "the incarnational Christian movement," as defined by the early creeds, and exclusive of heretical and cultic sects, save for the Montanists
who receive special attention.
Kauffman defends the Montanists
, likens the Donatists to liberationists, and suggests that doctrinal deviation results from the exclusion of innocent intentional Christians from the institutional church.
While there is some merit to his observation that those in the early church who were strongly pacifistic tended toward theologically heterodox views (e.g., Tatian, Montanists
such as Tertullian, and in some respects Origen) or heresy (e.g., Marcion), this explanation is too simplistic, failing to offer a more nuanced account of diversity among Christians.
As a result, Orchard and Graves uncritically interchanged "Baptists" with a host of disparate dissenting groups including Montanists
, Novationists, Paulicians, Bogomils, Albigensians, Waldensians, Lollards, Hussites, and Anabaptists.
They use archaeology, epigraphy, and the writings of early Christian authors on the sect to form a better image of the lives and beliefs of the Montanists
. The book, written in parallel pages in English, German and Turkish, includes many color photos of the finds and sites and two fold out maps of the towns marked with archaeological grids.
Indeed, later both Saint Cyril, Bishop of Jerusalem, in his Catecheses and Saint Augustine in his Book of Heresies accused Montanists
of drunken orgies and eucharistic atrocities that reportedly mixed the blood of suckling infants with flour to make bread for their "polluted sacraments."