The opponents of the plan proposed have, with great assiduity, cited and circulated the observations of Montesquieu on the necessity of a contracted territory for a republican government.
When Montesquieu recommends a small extent for republics, the standards he had in view were of dimensions far short of the limits of almost every one of these States.
So far are the suggestions of Montesquieu from standing in opposition to a general Union of the States, that he explicitly treats of a confederate republic as the expedient for extending the sphere of popular government, and reconciling the advantages of monarchy with those of republicanism.
Yet Montesquieu, speaking of this association, says: "Were I to give a model of an excellent Confederate Republic, it would be that of Lycia." Thus we perceive that the distinctions insisted upon were not within the contemplation of this enlightened civilian; and we shall be led to conclude, that they are the novel refinements of an erroneous theory.
"As the confederate republic of Germany," says Montesquieu, "consists of free cities and petty states, subject to different princes, experience shows us that it is more imperfect than that of Holland and Switzerland." "Greece was undone," he adds, "as soon as the king of Macedon obtained a seat among the Amphictyons." In the latter case, no doubt, the disproportionate force, as well as the monarchical form, of the new confederate, had its share of influence on the events.
Among the advantages of a confederate republic enumerated by Montesquieu, an important one is, "that should a popular insurrection happen in one of the States, the others are able to quell it.
"I am an admirer of Montesquieu
," replied Prince Andrew, "and his idea that le principe des monarchies est l'honneur me parait incontestable.
Contract notice: Geotechnical studies prior to projects GEMAPI Community montesquieu
The modern idea of separation of powers is to be found in one of the most important eighteenth-century works on political science, the Baron de Montesquieu
's The Spirit of the Laws (1748), which states that 'There can be no liberty where the legislative and executive powers are united in the same person, or body of magistrates ...
Five thematic chapters examine the legal thought of the book's dramatis personae, who include well-known thinkers such as Montesquieu
, Vattel, Burke, J.
The brain behind it was the French philosopher Montesquieu
to Brandeis, jurists theorizing separation of powers have characterized its purpose as primarily to promote liberty and the rule of law.