Furness, "Ghrelin and motilin
receptors as drug targets for gastrointestinal disorders," Nature Reviews Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol.
It has no relevant homology with most other biologically active peptides except motilin
and has therefore equivalently been described as motilin-related peptide (2).
AL was also shown to increase the levels of gastric hormone motilin
and gastrin, while decreasing the levels of somatostatin and corticotrophin-releasing factor, which results in improving the gastric emptying condition [48,49].
Kaga et al., "Ghrelin is an appetite-stimulatory signal from stomach with structural resemblance to motilin
," Gastroenterology, vol.
in plasma and tumor tissues from patients with the carcinoid syndrome.
Potential mechanisms underlying the physiological responses to DKT have been investigated in animal models and include elevated levels of plasma vasoactive intestinal polypeptide [14, 17, 20], substance P [14, 17, 21, 22], motilin
[23-25], and acetylcholine [10,11,13, 26-28], which promote gastrointestinal motility, as well as calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) [14,15,17,21] and adrenomedullin [15,16,29, 30], which increase intestinal blood flow.
Five candidate FR genes, including integral membrane protein 2B (ITM2B), lysophosphatidic acid receptor 6 (LPAR6), motilin
receptor (MLNR), calcium-binding protein 39-like (CAB39L), and ADP ribosylation factor-like GTPase 11 (ARL11), were identified as potential initiating drivers of bladder carcinogenesis.
Although there are conflicting data about smoking in the literature, it is hypothesized that nicotine increases motilin
levels, resulting in phasic intestinal contractions and thus pain (15).
Numerous gastrointestinal peptides, such as serotonin, gastrin, obestatin, cholecystokinin, and motilin
, take place in the intestinal functions and gastric emptying (6).
The one I have used most commonly is low-dose erythromycin (sub-antibiotic dosage), which is a motilin