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Histopathologic lesions in brain of zebu with spongiform encephalopathy and cow with bovine spongiform encephalopathy, Switzerland, 2004 * Site Cow Zebu Brainstem Dorsal motor nucleus of vagus nerve (+) (++) Nucleus of spinal tract of trigeminal (++) (+++) nerve Nucleus of hypoglossal nerve (+) (++) Reticular formation (++) (++) Nucleus of solitary tract (++) (+++) Vestibular nuclei (++) (+) to (++) Olivary nuclei (++) (++) Cerebellar cortex (-) (+) Midbrain (substantia grisea centralis) (+) to (++) (++) to (+++) Thalamus (++) (++) to (+++) Hippocampus n.d.
The PCRF projects fibers to the motor nucleus of the facial nerve, to the hypoglossal nucleus, and to the parabrachial nuclei, which contain some respiratory centers.
Examination of the brains of these animals showed not only nigral cell loss with a corresponding striatal dopamine depletion but also neurodegeneration in the locus coeruleus, dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, and the nucleus basalis of Meynert, a pattern of cell loss that is strikingly similar to that seen in Parkinson's disease and is not observed in any other of the toxicant-induced animal models of Parkinson's disease.
In patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), nonmotor symptoms such as hyposmia, mood disorders, sleep disorders, and autonomic abnormalities often precede motor symptoms, and [alpha]-synuclein deposition in the olfactory bulb, enteric plexus, or dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerves is considered to proceed to nigral degeneration [1].
In the present study, the volume, neuronal number and neuronal nuclear area of nucleus ovoidalis- an auditory thalamic relay nucleus and nucleus ruber- a motor nucleus of domestic chick were investigated after giving sound stimulation in the prenatal period.
In the adult, the motor nucleus of the facial nerve (VIIIth cranial nerve) is located deep in the reticular formation of the caudal portion of the pons.